COVID 19 Vaccine Spike Protein Detox Guide

COVID 19 Vaccine Spike Protein Detox and Immune Support Protocol

Supplements to help mitigate damage from the COVID 19 Vaccine - a spike protein detox - and to support the immune system against COVID-19.
March 31, 2022

As we’ve seen through the hundreds of thousands of COVID 19 vaccine injuries, there are many who are suffering the consequences of participating in clinical trials for this experimental gene based drug injection. This guide has and will continue to utilize months of research, and dozens upon dozens of studies on supplements that can help with COVID-19 symptoms and COVID-19 vaccine injuries, including those that will help detox the body of components of this dangerous injection. Whether you are looking for a way to mitigate the damage of taking the jab, are looking to recover your health post-jab, or simply want to reduce the damages from COVID-19 infection…This protocol can and will aid you in restoring your health.

The information in this article can help you for the following circumstances:

  1. You took the COVID injection – and are looking for a way to mitigate damage or symptoms you are experiencing, and possibly to help with vaccine injuries aka vaccine adverse events.
  2. You plan on taking the COVID Injection – if you have been forced for work or school to take the jab, and want to know what supplements you can take before, during and after, to reduce the negative impact of the deadly shot.
  3. To prevent infection – All of the supplements in this guide are essential to effective immune function, and will benefit anyone trying to prevent COVID-19 infection as well as progression of the virus.
  4. As an early treatment for COVID-19- All of the supplements in this guide are carefully selected for their effects against the symptoms of COVID-19 infection as well as COVID-19 Vaccines.
  5. To help with Long-COVID symptoms or long-term COVID-19 vaccine injuries – All of these supplements a) bolster the immune system b) help detox the COVID 19 vaccine toxins and c) help with COVID-19 and spike protein damage

Most of the supplements below are over the counter, natural supplements and simply replace a healthy diet, or provide concentrated doses of nutrients which would be difficult to obtain through food. People like to criticize natural supplements, but they forget that by and large medicines have their roots in nature, and most medicines are a specific chemical extract (or a synthetic copy of) or cocktail of extracts, of things originally found in nature.

Please Note: I am a firm believer that those suffering ill health or disease, have the “right to try” any medicines that have low cytotoxicity and low risk of adverse effects, which may reduce or alleviate their symptoms and condition(s). The below information is subject to change and will likely be updated frequently, to include: new information, additional supplements, and more studies to verify their potential benefit against COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccine damage and injuries.

COVID-19 Vaccine Spike Protein Transmission

If you are skeptical of just how dangerous these COVID-19 injections are, please check out our article on COVID-19 vaccines and blood clots and our page on COVID 19 vaccine injuries.

Side effects experienced by close contacts to COVID 19 vaccinated:

  • massive headaches
  • micro-clots and sudden bruising throughout the body
  • exceptionally heavy menstrual cycles among both the young and post menopausal
  • miscarriages
  • reduction in breast milk 
  • sterility among both women and men
  • household pets dying shortly after the owners get the serum.

The COVID 19 & Vaccine Detox Protocol

  1. Magnesium
  2. N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC)
  3. Glutathione
  4. Zinc
  5. Selenium
  6. Quercetin
  7. Vitamin D
  8. Vitamin C
  9. Vitamin A
  10. Zeolite
  11. Pine Needle Tea (or Star Anise or Fennel)
  12. Dandelion Root
  13. Black Cumin Seed Oil
  14. MGO Manuka Honey (Recommended when consuming #11 Pine Needle, #12 Dandelion Root & #13 N.Sativa Oil as part of your protocol)
  15. Fulvic Acid & Shilajit
  16. Bio-Fibrin (Proteolytic Enzymes)


Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in the body. There are 3,751 magnesium binding sites on human proteins. As the fourth most abundant mineral in your body, Magnesium plays a role in over 300 biochemical processes. It is essential for a healthy heart, as well as building strong bones, DNA, and genetic materials.

It is estimated that over 80% of people may be deficient in magnesium. It’s important to consume a diet rich in fresh organic vegetables to optimize your magnesium levels or to supplement with magnesium if your unable to obtain adequate amounts from your regular diet.

“Up to 80% of people may be deficient in magnesium. As the fourth most abundant mineral in your body, it’s essential for building strong bones, DNA and genetic materials.”

The Importance of Magnesium For Your Body – Dr. mercola
Best FormsMagnesium L-threonate, Magnesium Bisglycinate, Magnesium Taurate
Worst FormsMagnesium Oxide (least bio-available / least absorbed)
Notes– Magnesium and Calcium oppose one another. If you are consuming allot of calcium you may need a higher dose of magnesium
– If you are taking a multivitamin, the best ratio to have between Calcium and Magnesium is 2:1 or 3:1
– Ensure you are also getting adequate Calcium, Vitamin K2, and Vitamin D to balance and optimize magnesium health benefits and avoid side effects.
Magnesium Table – Best & Worst Forms

Health Properties of Magnesium (Pharmacological Actions)

Magnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids. It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Magnesium sulfate reduces striated muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission by reducing acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction. Additionally, Magnesium inhibits Ca2+ influx through dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-dependent channels. This accounts for much of its relaxant action on vascular smooth muscle.


Medical Uses for Magnesium

  • Constipation
  • Convulsions
  • Hypomagnesemia (magnesium deficiency)
  • Torsades de Pointes
  • Barium Poisoning
  • Mercury Detox
  • Asthma
  • Bowel Preparation
  • Soak for minor sprains and bruises
  • Treatment of severe toxemias
    • pre-eclampsia
    • eclampsia
  • Acute nephritis in children
  • Used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant

Health Risks & Drug Interactions

  • Please check drug interactions with your doctor and / or on
  • List of drug interactions with Magnesium (Mg) drug interactions available on
  • May be harmful if swallowed
  • May act as an irritant
  • Adverse reactions include hypotension, ECG changes, diarrhea, urinary retention, CNS depression and respiratory depression.

Dosage & Supplement Facts

  • Toxicity can occur at LD50 = 1200 mg/kg (rat, subcutaneous).

Food Sources of Magnesium

  • Dried agar seaweed
  • Spinach
  • Swiss chard
  • Kale
  • Broccoli
  • Avocados

Health Benefits of Magnesium

Mitochondria are the powerhouses of your cells, responsible for producing the energy, known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), that your body organs use to function properly. Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible in part for many health problems. Without magnesium all other attempts to improve mitochondrial health may fail, simply because a sufficient amount of magnesium is required for new mitochondria to be created in the cells. As well magnesium helps increase the efficiency of mitochondria to repair damage and produce ATP.

Magnesium deficiency puts individuals at risk of the following health issues:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Kidney and liver damage
  • Muscle cramps and weakness
  • Weakened immune system
  • Osteoporosis
  • Insulin resistance

Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency

  • Headaches
  • Muscle spasms
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness
  • Irregular heart rhythms

Magnesium helps with:

  1. Mitochondrial Function
  2. Heart / Cardiac Health
  3. Lower risk of diabetes
  4. Better bone health
  5. Improved sleep
  6. Proper nerve function
  7. Mental and physical relaxation
  8. Detoxification

Mitochondrial Function

Sufficient amounts of magnesium are needed in order for new mitochondria to be created in the cells. Magnesium also helps increase the efficiency of the mitochondria when it comes to repairing damage and producing ATP. Mitochondria are considered the powerhouse of your cells. They produce the energy that your body organs use in order to function properly — this energy is known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

In a clinical trial published 1994 titled Dietary supplementation and improved anaerobic performance, researchers found that directly supplementing with ATP-E increased blood ATP significantly when compared to the placebo group and that subsequent improved performance in physical tests, was a consequence of the increased ATP. Since Magnesium plays a significant role in ATP production, this study supports the claim that Magnesium supplementation, plays a pivotal role in ATP production. And that supplementation with Magnesium, especially in magnesium deficient individuals, has the potential to greatly improve mitochondrial function.

In one study researchers found supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ), helped patients with mitochondrial cytopathies, to restore efficiency of the respiratory chain and increased cytosolic free Magnesium [Mg2+] in all treated patients. Therefore it may be beneficial in some cases, to consume CoQ10 along-side Magnesium for optimal effects, however more research is required.

Heart / Cardiac health

It makes sense that since your heart is largely responsible for pumping blood through your veins and keeping you alive, that it is one of the most magnesium reliant organs in the human body…

Through Magnesium’s ability to promote production of ATP and supportproper muscle function, it enables the heart to efficiently pump blood throughout the entire body.

Magnesium also acts as an electrolyte, which means that it’s partially responsible for the electrical activity that regulates the timing of your heartbeat.” Studies have shown that there is an inverse association between magnesium intake and CVD.

In a gold standard RCT study published in 2013 titled Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk, researchers found individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk:

“Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD.”

Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease ris
Other Studies on Magnesium and Cardiac Health
  1. Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies (Review) “Circulating and dietary magnesium are inversely associated with CVD risk”
  2. Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies (Review) “There is a statistically significant nonlinear inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and total CVD events risk. Serum magnesium concentrations are linearly and inversely associated with the risk of total CVD events.”
  3. Magnesium Depletion Score (MDS) Predicts Risk of Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Mortality among US Adults (Clinical Trial) “individuals with magnesium deficiency who may benefit from increased intake of magnesium to reduce risks of systemic inflammation and CVD mortality.”
  4. Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular mortality: A systematic review and dose-based meta-regression analysis of prospective studies (Review) “Although the combined data confirm the role of dietary magnesium intake in reducing CVD mortality, the dose-response relationship was only found among women and in US population.”

Lower Risk of Diabetes

Numerous studies have shown that magnesium helps lower the glucose levels and prevent the development of Type 2 diabetes by maintaining the efficient metabolic function of the body.

A clinical trial study published in 2014 titled Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged americans, found that magnesium could play a role in preventing development of diabetes among those most at risk; though it didn’t lower things like fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity:

“Magnesium intake may be particularly beneficial in offsetting risk of developing diabetes among those at high risk.”

Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged americans
Other Studies on Magnesium and Lower Risk of Diabetes, progression to Type Diabetes, and Diabetic related Inflammation
  1. The effect of perioperative magnesium sulfate on blood sugar in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing cardiac surgery: A double-blinded randomized study (RCT) “The magnesium sulfate produced a better-controlled effect on the blood sugar level. It decreased the requirement of insulin infusion and minimized the changes in the blood level of potassium.”
  2. Magnesium supplementation affects gene expression related to insulin and lipid in patients with gestational diabetes (RCT) “Overall, magnesium supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved FPG levels, and gene expression of PPAR-γ, GLUT-1, and LDLR.”
  3. Oral Magnesium Supplementation and Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial (RCT) “Magnesium supplementation improves MetS by reducing blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia.” Also relevant to risk of high blood pressure and stroke
  4. The Effects of Choline and Magnesium Co-Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters, Inflammation, and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (RCT) “Choline and magnesium co-supplementation was more effective in improving inflammation and endothelial dysfunction”
  5. The Effects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Glycemic Response among Type 2 Diabetes Patients (RCT) “The results of this study revealed that oral Mg supplementation reduces insulin resistance and improves the glycemic control indicators among T2D patients.”
  6. The effects of combined magnesium and zinc supplementation on metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (RCT) ” In patients with T2DM and CHD, the 12-week intake of magnesium plus zinc had beneficial effects on FPG, HDL-cholesterol, CRP, insulin, total nitrite, TAC levels, and BDI and BAI score. This suggests that magnesium and zinc co-supplementation may be beneficial for patients with T2DM and CHD”
  7. Effects of Choline and Magnesium Concurrent Supplementation on Coagulation and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Pilot Clinical Trial (RCT) “Overall, concurrent supplementation of magnesium and choline is more effective than either magnesium or choline alone to improve coagulation in subjects with T2DM.”

Better Bone Health

Magnesium and calcium work together to keep your bone healthy. If you’re deficient in one of these minerals, then you won’t be able to properly metabolize the other.

A clinical trial published early 2014 titled Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, showed that “Lower magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body”:

Lower magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body, but this result does not translate into increased risk of fractures. A magnesium consumption slightly greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance is associated with increased lower-arm and wrist fractures that are possibly related to more physical activity and falls.”

Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study
Other Studies on Magnesium and Bone Health
  1. Long-term effects of magnesium carbonate on coronary artery calcification and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study (RCT) “Magnesium may have a favorable effect on CAC. The long-term effect on bone mineral density remains unclear”
  2. Effects of reduced energy availability on bone metabolism in women and men (RCT) “When comparing within groups, five days of low EA (15kcal·kgLBM-1·d-1) decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption in women, but not in men”

Improved Sleep

Magnesium regulates your body’s neurotransmitters, which are responsible for calming the body and mind by sending signals throughout the nervous system. This mineral also regulates melatonin, a hormone that controls the sleep-wake cycles of the body. [1]

In a gold standard RCT published in 2016 titled [Long-term HRV analysis shows stress reduction by magnesium intake], researchers showed that individuals with physical and mental stress, benefited form magnesium supplementation:

“The results of this study point out that persons with mental and physical stress can benefit from a daily intake of magnesium. This might lead to an improved physiological regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and, furthermore, prevent magnesium deficiency and diseases such as, for example, restlessness, irritability, lack of concentration, sleep disorder or depression.

[Long-term HRV analysis shows stress reduction by magnesium intake]
Biorhythms and possible central regulation of magnesium status, phototherapy, darkness therapy and chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion

In a review published early 2002 titled Biorhythms and possible central regulation of magnesium status, phototherapy, darkness therapy and chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion, researchers showed that darkness therapy applied “to all the chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion”, and it called for more research to ascertain exactly how significant a role chronopathological forms of magnesium plat in the physio-pathology of sleep disorders:

“The psycholeptic sedative effects of darkness, like those of magnesium, rely on direct membraneous and oxidant actions, neural mediated effects (i.e. stimulation of inhibitory neuromodulators such as GABA and taurine), and on antagonism of neuroactive gases (CO and NO). Darkness therapyper se, partial substitutive therapy with melatonin and with their mimicking agents (Mg, L-Tryptophan,Taurine) apply to all the chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion with decreased production of melatonin: sleep disorders, migraine, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, some forms of asthma and of sudden infant death syndrome. Further research should assess the importance of the chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion in the physiopathology of these disorders.”

Biorhythms and possible central regulation of magnesium status, phototherapy, darkness therapy and chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion,
The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

In a gold standard RCT study titled The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, researchers analyzed seniors with insomnia in a long-term care facility in Italy, and found that supplementation with a combination melatonin + magnesium + zinc cocktail, greatly improved multiple aspects of sleep:

“The food supplement resulted in considerably better overall PSQI scores than placebo (difference between groups in change from baseline PSQI score=6.8; 95% confidence interval=5.4-8.3, P<.001). Moreover, the significant improvements in all four domains of the LSEQ (ease of getting to sleep, P<.001; quality of sleep, P<.001; hangover on awakening from sleep, P=.005; alertness and behavioral integrity the following morning, P=.001), in SDQ score (P<.001), in total sleep time (P<.001), and in SF-36 physical score (P=.006) suggest that treatment had a beneficial effect on the restorative value of sleep.

The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

The study concluded that nightly administration with melatonin + magnesium + zinc had a profound effect on sleep quality and quality of life for seniors in long-term care facilities who have insomnia:

“The administration of nightly melatonin, magnesium, and zinc appears to improve the quality of sleep and the quality of life in long-term care facility residents with primary insomnia.”

The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep

In a gold standard RCT study published 2010 titled Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep, researchers showed many individuals have a low magnesium status associated with increased chronic inflammatory stress that could be alleviated by increased magnesium intake:

“The findings, however, suggest an association between magnesium status and sleep quality that needs further study to definitively determine whether a low magnesium status is a cause or an effect of poor sleep quality.”

Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep

Proper Nerve Function

Magnesium helps activate and maintain proper nerve function. It also counteracts the negative effects of excessive calcium on the muscles and nerves.

In a clinical trial published in 2000 titled [The impact of changes in levels of calcium, phosphate and magnesium during hemodialysis on autonomic system reactivity as measured by heart rate variability analysis], researchers concluded that low calcium ion concentration and small reductions in magnesium levels could adversely influence the autonomic nervous system response, specifically during hemodialysis sessions:

“Obtained results let us to conclude, that hemodialysis leads to important change in the activity of both components of autonomic nervous system. The factors which may adversely influence the quality of this response may be, among others, low total calcium ion concentration as well as low percentage reduction in magnesium level during hemodialysis session”

[The impact of changes in levels of calcium, phosphate and magnesium during hemodialysis on autonomic system reactivity as measured by heart rate variability analysis]

Mental and Physical Relaxation (Improved Mood)

As mentioned above, magnesium may help quiet down nerve activity since it regulates the body’s neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate anxiety, depression and stress, allowing your mind and body to relax. [2]

A clinical trial published in 2018 titled Superiority of magnesium and vitamin B6 over magnesium alone on severe stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia: A randomized, single-blind clinical trial, researchers showed that oral Mg and B6 supplementation alleviated stress in healthy adults, especially if they had a Mg deficiency:

“These findings suggest oral Mg supplementation alleviated stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia and the addition of vitamin B6 to Mg was not superior to Mg supplementation alone. With regard to subjects with severe/extremely severe stress, this study provides clinical support for greater benefit of Mg combined with vitamin B6.”

Superiority of magnesium and vitamin B6 over magnesium alone on severe stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia: A randomized, single-blind clinical trial


Magnesium helps draw out toxic substances and heavy metals from the body. It’s also needed for the synthesis of glutathione, which is an antioxidant that detoxifies mercury, lead and arsenic. [3]

We know that muercury is one of the most cytotoxic heavy metals, and almost one of the most difficult to remove from the body…In a clinical trial published in 2006 titled Mercury elimination with oral DMPS, DMSA, vitamin C, and glutathione: an observational clinical review, researchers used glutathione as part of a protocol to detoxify mercury from the body. Since magnesium is a precursor to glutathione product this is relevant in showing magnesium’s role in heavy metal detox of mercury :

“This article reviews the protocol for the use of oral 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) and oral meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in combination with intravenous glutathione and high-dose vitamin C for treatment of high-level mercury. This protocol yielded an average 69% reduction of urine mercury by provocation analysis.”

Mercury elimination with oral DMPS, DMSA, vitamin C, and glutathione: an observational clinical review
Association between inflammatory marker, environmental lead exposure, and glutathione S-transferase gene

In a clinical trial study published in 2013 titled Association between inflammatory marker, environmental lead exposure, and glutathione S-transferase gene, researchers showed that the glutathione s-transferase gene was a determinant to lead-induced inflammatory response:

“Our findings suggested that lead exposure is associated with adverse changes in inflammatory marker and SBP. GST polymorphisms are among the genetic determinants related to lead-induced inflammatory response

Association between inflammatory marker, environmental lead exposure, and glutathione S-transferase gene

Magnesium and COVID-19

In a gold stadard RCT study published 2021 titled Magnesium treatment on methylation changes of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), researchers found that 12 weeks of personalized Magnesium treatment, reduced 5-hydrozymethylcytosine modifications in the TMPRSS2 gene. SARS-CoV-2 requires host-expressed TMPRSS2 to facilitate the viral spike protein priming. Therefore magnesiums ability to inhibit modifications of TMPRSS2 gene by COVID-19, makes it a potential adjunct early treatment and preventative tool against COVID infection:

“Among individuals ages < 65 y with calcium-to-magnesium intake ratios equal to or over 2.6, reducing the ratio to around 2.3 increased 5-methylcytosine modifications (i.e., cg16371860) and reduced 5-hydroxymethylcytosine modifications (i.e., cg26337277) in the TMPRSS2 gene. These findings, if confirmed, provide another mechanism for the role of Mg intervention in the prevention of COVID-19 and treatment of early and mild disease by modifying the phenotype of the TMPRSS2 genotype.”

Magnesium treatment on methylation changes of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)

N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC)

NAC is the supplement form of cysteine, an amino acid that helps the body create and use protective antioxidants. A pre-cursor to glutathione production; a powerful anti-oxidant essential to the body, it is considered a “semi-esential amino acid” because your body can create some NAC from other amino acids, particularly methionine and serine. Research suggests NAC (the supplement form of L-cysteine) is a safe and effective budget treatment for a range of health conditions, both acute and chronic.

Please note: much of the information in this NAC section, came from an article by lewrockwell, (and I believe originally it was written by Dr. mercola) all credit and rights and belong to them.

“Not only has been it been used for three decades as an effective mucolytic agent (mucous-thinner), but it also has uses including reducing inflammation, protecting the liver, and preventing/treating drug toxicity, insulin resistance, infertility due to PCOS and more.”

N-Acetylcysteine: Top 7 NAC Supplement Benefits + How to Use It – Dr. Axe

Past studies of NAC (which promotes glutathione production in the body) found it reduces viral replication in many viruses including influenza and helps counteract hypercoagulation due to it’s anticoagulant and platelet inhibiting properties; a consequence of the sulfur in NAC which reduces the interchain disulfide bonds by by Von Willebrand factors that contribute to clot formation. Once the Von Willebrand factor sulfur bonds are broken, the clot starts to dissolve, and the blood vessels open allowing for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

“NAC is an effective and safe alternative to currently available antithrombotic agents to restore vessel patency after arterial occlusion.”

Potent Thrombolytic Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Arterial Thrombi

NAC helps with:

  1. Has Antioxidant Effects and Helps Form Glutathione – “The most important N-acetylcysteine mechanisms of action are its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. These are due to its ability to increase glutathione levels, scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidative stress. This is why it’s recommended as a potential treatment for different disorders resulting from free oxygen radicals, such as liver disease, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and even cancer.”
  2. Helps Treat Respiratory Issues – “NAC has the ability to reduce mucus secretions and phlegm, as well as to reduce coughing, wheezing and trouble breathing. This makes it helpful in treating conditions including chronic bronchitis (defined as the presence of chronic productive coughs for more than three months in two consecutive years), as well as colds and the flu. In addition, there’s evidence that it can be an adjunct treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (the fourth-leading cause of death in the United States) and emphysema.”
  3. Protects Liver and Kidneys – NAC helps with mitigating the risks of taking certain medications, especially acetaminophen; helps treat emergency acetaminophen toxicity and acute liver failure. “NAC injections can be given to reduce harmful effects of overdosing on the liver and kidneys. It seems to counteract toxicity of chemicals in several ways including: it’s dual role as nucleophile and as a -SH donor, by replenishing glutathione, by reducting N-acetyl-pbenzoquinonimine, and by performing hepatoprotective actions related to it’s antioxidant properties.
  4. Improves Mood – Because it has an impact on levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain, NAC for anxiety, depression and other mental health conditions may be a useful complementary treatment. “There have been many studies of this compound, including neuroimaging studies, and it has been investigated in innumerable disorders—depression, bipolar disorder, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, addiction, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, and addiction.” —article published on the Psychology Today
  5. May Inhibit Cancer Growth – In animal studies, animals fed with NAC experience less cellular damage and fewer lung, colon and bladder tumors compared with those fed a normal diet. “NAC interferes with tumor invasion, metastasis, and blood vessel growth in lab experiments, however it’s not known how well these effects carry over to humans.” —Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center NAC helps inhibit cancer by: regulating the expression of genes that are involved in oxidative stress and inflammation pathways, increasing antioxidant status and reducing production of inflammatory cytokines and proteins. It can also help cancer patients reduce the adverse effects associated with certain drugs and treatments.
  6. Defends Against Metabolic Disorders – NAC improves insulin sensitivity and can help those who’re susceptible to developing metabolic disorders.
  7. Supports Pregnancy – “Studies have shown no maternal or fetal harmful effects of NAC treatment. Certain studies have even found that NAC used in combination with vitamin E, or vitamins A+E, and essential fatty acids can reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lead to pregnancy rate improvements in those struggling to become and stay pregnant, especially women with PCOS. NAC also has anti-inflammatory effects that can improve pregnant and birth outcomes among women with infections, who are susceptible to experiencing preterm labors. Doses of about 0.6 grams of NAC daily can be taken orally along with progesterone after week 16 of pregnancy in order to protect against preterm birth recurrence.” It can also help with acetaminophen overdose during pregnancy and helps with insulin sensitivity in PCOS patients.

NAC and Influenza | List of Studies

  1. Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment – “NAC treatment was well tolerated and resulted in a significant decrease in the frequency of influenza-like episodes, severity, and length of time confined to bed. Both local and systemic symptoms were sharply and significantly reduced in the NAC group.”
  2. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits virus replication and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in A549 cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus – “The antiviral and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of NAC included inhibition of activation of oxidant sensitive pathways including transcription factor NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinase p38. Pharmacological inhibitors of NF-κB (BAY 11-7085) or p38 (SB203580) exerted similar effects like those determined for NAC in H5N1-infected cells. The combination of BAY 11-7085 and SB203580 resulted in increased inhibitory effects on virus replication and production of pro-inflammatory molecules relative to either single treatment. NAC inhibits H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Therefore, antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic.”

NAC Inhibits Viral Replication

Multiple previous studies on viral infections has shown that NAC is helpful against many viral infections including the influenza virus:

“NAC was tested in a 6-month human study7 of influenza. It was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial involving 262 people. Half of the subjects received 600 mg of NAC, the other half received placebo, twice daily for 6 months.

NAC was found to improve immune function and reduce the severity of influenza infections. Both groups had similar infection rates with A/H1N1 virus influenza. However, whereas 79% of placebo-treated people had symptomatic infections, only 25% of subjects treated with NAC were symptomatic!

There were a total of 99 flu-like episodes (symptomatic periods) that occurred in 62 people in the placebo group over the 6 month study. 48% of these were classified as mild, 47% were moderate, and 6% were severe.

In the NAC group, 46 flu-like episodes occurred in 37 subjects. 72% of these were mild, 26% were moderate and only 2% severe. There were many fewer days of being bedridden in the NAC group.”

NAC is being studies in COVID-19. Should you take it? – Board-certified nutritionist Joseph Debé

NAC Inhibits Pro-inflammatory Cytokines

Studies have also shown that NAC can inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus:

“The antiviral and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of NAC included inhibition of activation of oxidant sensitive pathways including transcription factor NF-kappaB and mitogen activated protein kinase p38 …”

“NAC inhibits H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Therefore, antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic.”

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits virus replication and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in A549 cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus

Proinflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in COVID-19 severity. Researchers have confirmed that in severe cases, cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-10 (IL10) and TNF-ɑ are all elevated.[12] Once they reach excessive levels, a so-called cytokine storm develops, causing significant tissue damage. NAC may be able to inhibit this damaging cascade.

How NAC Works to Combat Oxidative Stress

According to Dr. Roger Seheult, NAC by raising glutathione helps combat oxidative stress caused by COVID-19 infection; the main factor in the cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-19:

“N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is inexpensive, has very low toxicity, has been FDA approved for many years, and has the potential to improve therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. NAC administered intravenously, orally, or inhaled, may suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and may improve outcomes if used timely. Potential therapeutic benefits of NAC include, extracellularly scavenging ROS radicals, replenishing intracellular GSH, suppression of cytokine storm, and T cell protection, thus mitigating inflammation and tissue injury. NAC administration in combination with other antiviral agents may dramatically reduce hospital admission rate, mechanical ventilation and mortality.”

N-Acetylcysteine to Combat COVID-19: An Evidence Review

“Almost 60 years of experience in the prophylaxis and therapy of a variety of clinical conditions have established the safety of this drug, even at very high doses and for long‐term treatments.”

Rationale for the use of N‐acetylcysteine in both prevention and adjuvant therapy of COVID‐19

In order to understand how NAC can help protect against COVID-19 Infection, it’s important to understand a bit about biochemistry; Seheult explains this in one of his presentations. The below quoted information is from an article here (all credit goes to the original authors).

“When you add an electron to an oxygen (O2) molecule, you get superoxide (O2), a reactive oxygen species (ROS). When you add another electron (for a total of 2 electrons), you create hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). An oxygen molecule with three electrons added turns into hydroxyl (O3), and oxygen with four electrons added becomes harmless water (H2O).

Not only does superoxide play a critical role in the oxidative stress associated with the comorbidities for COVID-19, such as obesity, heart disease and diabetes, but superoxide-driven oxidative stress is also at the heart of serious COVID-19 infection. Now, your body has built-in defenses against oxidative stress. These defenses include:

  1. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), which converts damaging superoxide into hydrogen peroxide
  2. Catalase, which converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water [15]
  3. Glutathione peroxidase (GSHPX), which does two things simultaneously: While reducing hydrogen peroxide into water, it also converts the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) into glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the oxidized form of glutathione.

In other words, as GSHPX turns hydrogen peroxide into harmless water, glutathione becomes oxidized. The oxidized GSSG is then “recharged” or regenerated by NADPH (the reduced form of NADP+), turning it back into GSH (the reduced form of glutathione). NADPH is also converted into NADP+ through an enzyme called GSH reductase.

As noted by Seheult, serious COVID-19 infection triggers a perfect storm of superoxide-driven oxidative stress, as SARS-CoV-2 attaches to the ACE2 receptor, triggering angiotensin 2 (AT-2), which stimulates superoxide. Simultaneously, there’s a deficiency of AT-1,7, which inhibits superoxide. This deficiency allows superoxide to accumulate further.

SARS-CoV-2 also attracts polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), a type of white blood cell, which also produces superoxide in its efforts to destroy pathogens. All of that superoxide is then converted into other ROS that destroy endothelial cells.

This down-spiral can be inhibited by NAC, as it boosts GSSG. As illustrated in Seheult’s graphic below, when you add two GSH molecules and hydrogen peroxide together, you end up with oxidized glutathione and harmless water, thereby alleviating the oxidative stress.”

NAC Flow Diagram – Biochemistry

NAC and COVID-19 | List of Studies

A search on NIH’s database shows 82 studies on NAC and COVID-19 (i’ll list a handful here but there are dozens more}:

  1. N-Acetylcysteine to Combat COVID-19: An Evidence Review – Found “NAC administration in combination with other antiviral agents may dramatically reduce hospital admission rate, mechanical ventilation and mortality.”
  2. Rationale for the use of N‐acetylcysteine in both prevention and adjuvant therapy of COVID‐19 – “he oral administration of NAC, at the dose of 600 mg twice daily, may be proposed for preventive purposes aimed at attenuating the risk of developing COVID‐19 and its severity during epidemic periods…intravenously administered NAC has been shown to potentiate the vasodilator, anti‐inflammatory and anti-aggregatory effects of nitroglycerin, and this useful interaction has been translated into improving outcomes, such as in acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and acute pulmonary edema. 68 , 69 Administration of NAC has been included among the possible strategies aimed at preserving endothelial function and limiting microthrombosis in severe forms of COVID‐19. 70…severe COVID‐19 forms with pulmonary and/or systemic symptoms, intravenously administered NAC at the high doses that are commonly used in case of paracetamol intoxication, given at the first onset of chest symptoms, would be expected to play an adjuvant therapeutic role in combination with antivirals or other drugs.”
  3. Devilishly radical NETwork in COVID-19: Oxidative stress, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and T cell suppression – “A severe course of COVID-19 is a result of both the direct cytolytic effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the deleterious consequences of the immune response. The latter comprises a virus-induced cytokine storm as well as imbalanced ROS production by cells of the MPS and neutrophils resulting in extensive NET formation, inflammation and tissue destruction. Moreover, excess ROS contribute to a suppression of the adaptive immune system due to paralysis or elimination of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and CD4+ helper T cells. As a result, the killing of virus infected cells and an efficient production of antiviral antibodies needed for the development of a long-lasting antiviral immunity are disturbed. Given the central role of oxidative stress and formation of pro-inflammatory NETs for the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, treatment strategies should aim at decreasing the net ROS levels and NET formation, e.g. by antioxidants such as vitamin C or NAC and/or by inhibiting ROS production, e.g. by antagonizing the activation of cells of the MPS and neutrophil granulocytes and/or by inhibiting TNF-α”
  4. Therapeutic blockade of inflammation in severe COVID-19 infection with intravenous N-acetylcysteine – “We propose that NAC restrains the pro-inflammatory metabolic pathways that control oxidative stress and mTOR-dependent generation of cytokine storm emanating from the immune system [20].”
  5. N-acetyl-cysteine reduces the risk for mechanical ventilation and mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: a two-center retrospective cohort study – “Treatment with oral NAC led to significantly lower rates of progression to SRF as compared to the control group (p < .01). Patients in the NAC group presented significantly lower 14- and 28-day mortality as compared to controls (p < .001 and p < .01 respectively). NAC treatment significantly reduced 14- and 28-day mortality in patients with severe disease (p < .001, respectively). NAC improved over time the PO2/FiO2 ratio and decreased the white blood cell, CRP, D-dimers and LDH levels. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, non-severe illness and NAC administration were independent predictors of 28-days survival.”
  6. N-Acetylcysteine: A potential therapeutic agent for SARS-CoV-2 – “high levels of TNF-ɑ, IL1β, IL6, IL10 have been associated with severe SARS-CoV-2. Cytokine and antigen overstimulation are potentially responsible for poor humoral response to the virus. Lower cellular redox status, which leads to pro-inflammatory states mediated by TNF-ɑ is also potentially implicated. In vivo, in vitro, and human clinical trials have demonstrated N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an effective method of improving redox status, especially when under oxidative stress. In human clinical trials, NAC has been used to replenish glutathione stores and increase the proliferative response of T cells. NAC has also been shown to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway (IL1β and IL18) in vitro, and decrease plasma TNF-ɑ in human clinical trials…We hypothesize that NAC could act as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of COVID-19 through a variety of potential mechanisms, including increasing glutathione, improving T cell response, and modulating inflammation. In this article, we present evidence to support the use of NAC as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of COVID-19.”
  7. N-acetylcysteine: A rapid review of the evidence for effectiveness in treating COVID-19 – “Preclinical data suggests that N-acetylcysteine and its antioxidant properties may have purpose for use in the therapy and/or prevention of acute viral respiratory infections including influenza. However, the therapeutic efficacy of NAC is likely to be strain-dependent.”
  8. Potent Thrombolytic Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Arterial Thrombi “NAC is an effective and safe alternative to currently available antithrombotic agents to restore vessel patency after arterial occlusion.”

NAC Reduces Lung Injury

Multiple studies have shown NAC can improve a variety of lung issues including: Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) [16] both of which are common characteristics of COVID-19 Infection. Studies have also shown that it can speed recovery, reduce ICU stays and the need for mechanical ventilation in those with more severe respiratory symptoms:

  1. A 2017 meta-analysis, [17] which found a significant reduction in ICU stays among ARDS patients treated with NAC, even though there was no significant difference in short-term mortality risk.
  2. A 2007 study,[18] which concluded that NAC improves ARDS by “increasing intracellular glutathione and extracellular thiol molecules” along with general antioxidant effects.
  3. Research [19] published in 2018 found NAC reduces oxidative and inflammatory damage in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
  4. Another 2018 study [20] found NAC improves post-operative lung function in patients undergoing liver transplantation.
  5. A 1994 study [21] found NAC enhances recovery from acute lung injury, significantly regressing patients’ lung injury score during the first 10 days of treatment, and significantly reducing the need for ventilation. After three days of treatment, only 17% of those receiving NAC needed ventilation, compared to 48% in the placebo group.

NAC Protects Against Blood Clots

Seheult reviews the abnormal blood clotting aspects of COVID-19

Seheult believes there is more to the damage by COVID-19 than oxidative stress. He points out that the clots in patients with confirmed COVID-19 are rich with platelets, indicating another mechanism involving disulfide bonds. He goes on to explain:

“And, as we’ve already talked about N-acetylcysteine and reduced glutathione will break these disulfide bonds and cause them to lyse and potentially relieve the obstruction and the hypoxemia with COVID-19. Again, this is all a hypothesis, but it looks as though it’s fitting together.”

Dr. Seheult

In this MedCram video, Seheult reviews the abnormal blood clotting aspects of COVID-19. Interestingly, NAC addresses this problem too, as several studies [22 , 23 , 24 , 25] have confirmed it counteracts hypercoagulation and reduces the risk of blood clots and stroke.

As noted in one of these studies, [26] “NAC has anticoagulant and platelet-inhibiting properties.” It also has potent thrombolytic effects, meaning it breaks down blood clots that have already formed. [27] According to another study, [28] NAC protects against stroke in part by enhancing GSH and correcting antioxidant levels.

“NAC — which recharges glutathione — not only reduces superoxide (oxidative stress) but also appears to reduce von Willebrand factors that form blood clots.”

Coronavirus Pandemic Update 70: Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, and COVID 19

Essentially what Seheult is hypothesizing is that NAC is effective against COVID-19 because SARS-CoV-2 attaches to and reduces the ACE2 receptor, which causes AT-2 to increase and AT-1,7 to decrease. As a result it increases damaging superocide which causes oxidative stress and endothelial cell dysfunction.

I want to point out that not only is COVID-19 a respiratory disease, but it is also a vascular disease which causes blood clots that can inhibit the lungs ability to exchange oxygen.

“Fortunately, the sulfur in NAC (from cysteine) also reduces the intrachain disulfide bonds by von Willebrand factors that have polymerized by dissociating the sulfur bonds holding them together thus contributing to the clot. Once von Willebrand factor sulfur bonds are broken, the clots starts to dissolve and the blood vessels open up again allowing for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.”

Paradoxically NAC’s ‘mechanisms of action” do not appear to worsen bleeding disorders such as heparin or courmadin would, and instead provides a safer alternative to these treatments. It is propable that heparin in the FLCCC’s MATH+ Protocol could be replaced with NAC; a safer alternative.

FDA Cracks Down on NAC During COVID-19 Pandemic

If you needed any additional evidence that NAC can be beneficial in COVID-19 treatment…In July 2020, the FDA sent advisory letters to seven supplement brands warning them against selling NAC supplements; claiming it is excluded from the definition of a dietary supplement, as it was approved as a new drug in 1985. [2]  As such, NAC cannot be marketed as a supplement. Coincidentally this crackdown is just as news of NAC’s potential benefits against COVID-19 infection have come into circulation…The timing isn’t coincidental in my opinion, it’s to prevent people from using NAC as an effective treatment against COVID-19 infection.

The fact is the FDA, and CDC are bought and paid for by the vaccine manufacturers…if they suddenly ban a natural supplement that was FDA approved for over 60 years, with dozens of studies showing it’s safety…you can pretty much guarantee it’s going to be an effective treatment and that they are banning it for monetary reasons. Time will tell whether the FDA ends up trying to block access to NAC supplements, similarly to the way hydroxychloroquine access has been stifled.


Above we talked about NAC and how one of it’s mechanisms of actions against COVID-19 includes helping production of Glutathione…much of that is relevant here as directly supplementing with Glutathione facilitates those same mechanisms of action.

Glutathione is the body’s most powerful antioxidant. Human bodies produce glutathione naturally but over time as humans age & absorbs toxins, the production of it slows down. Children naturally have high glutathione levels. Glutathione is a body-specific antioxidant that cells need to function & survive. When you get sick, the level of glutathione can drop. It can also counteracts the harmful effects of graphene oxide.

Please Note: The majority of the information in this section comes from an article Glutathione Deficiency and Risk of Severe COVID-19 by Dr. Mercola. All credit and rights belong to the original author.

Glutathione and COVID-19

The symptoms of severe COVID-19 frequently include hypercoagulability, or an increased tendency to produce blood clots. While the pathophysiology is not completely understood,[1] the characteristic changes have been identified.[2] Researchers have found anticoagulant therapy helps improve health outcomes from an illness that can trigger a variety of thromboembolic complications. In addition data also shows people deficient in glutathione often experience some of the more serious COVID-19 symptoms. [3]

Glutathione helps with hypercoagulability

Although COVID-19 has similar prothrombotic (leads to clot formation) potential and rates to other respiratory viral infections not triggered by a coronavirus, in COVID-19 hypercoagulability (coagulation of blood faster than usual) – is a dynamic process with the highest risk occurring in severely ill people. The complications of hypercoagulability include shortness of breath and severe lung complications.

According to multiple studies (see below) the differences between those who have a mild and severe COVID-19 illness is related to the body’s ability to reduce the hyperimmune response that leads to a cytokine storm and the hypercoagulability that often accompanies it. Glutathione plays a role in the fight against the severe inflammatory response triggered by SARS-CoV-2.

Glutathione Plays a Crucial Role in Severe COVID-19 Illness

Studies published in ACS Infectious Disease and Antioxidants proposed that glutathione plays a crucial role in the body’s fight against the severe inflammatory response triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

In that study, they theorized the higher infection rate in older individuals and those with comorbidities suggest these groups are sensitive to environmental factors. Certain medical conditions have been identified that increase the risk of severe illness from COVID-19. These include chronic lung disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart conditions, obesity and smoking.

Specifically, the researchers homed in on an impaired redox homeostasis and concurrent oxidative stress in individuals of advanced age and with comorbidities. Redox homeostasis is a process that helps ensure a proper cellular response to stimuli.

When this is dysregulated, oxidative stress can lead to “cell death and contribute to disease development.” Glutathione plays a crucial role in the inflammatory response, which the researchers theorize is a feasible means in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. They wrote:

“The hypothesis that glutathione deficiency is the most plausible explanation for serious manifestation and death in COVID-19 patients was proposed on the basis of an exhaustive literature analysis and observations…The hypothesis unravels the mysteries of epidemiological data on the risk factors determining serious manifestations of COVID-19 infection and the high risk of death and opens real opportunities for effective treatment and prevention of the disease.”

Endogenous Deficiency of Glutathione as the Most Likely Cause of Serious Manifestations and Death in COVID-19 Patients

The paper published in Antioxidants also concluded that a common denominator appeared to be the impaired redox homeostasis system. They proposed glutathione may be “critical in extinguishing the exacerbated inflammation that triggers organ failure in COVID-19

In the paper, the scientists presented a review of biochemical mechanisms that are counterbalanced by glutathione and the pathways that may explain endogenous glutathione depletion in older people and those with comorbidities known to increase the risk of severe illness.

Glutathione Mediates Reduction in Lung Inflammation

One medical student put this theory to the test when his 48-year-old mother was diagnosed with pneumonia. She was prescribed hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin that helped to improve some symptoms but her breathing remained labored. When she had severe respiratory problems, her son contacted Dr. Richard Horowitz, a specialist who was treating his sister for Lyme disease.

He suggested adding glutathione to help reduce the inflammation and protect the lung tissue. The results were dramatic. Within one hour after receiving a 2,000 milligram dose of glutathione, her breathing had improved. She continued taking the glutathione for five days and did not relapse. Horowitz published two case studies, documenting the results of oral and IV glutathione.

In a recent case report Harowitz showed that Glutathione could help in relieving dyspnea associate with COVID-19:

“Oral and IV glutathione, glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine) and alpha lipoic acid may represent a novel treatment approach for blocking NF-κB and addressing “cytokine storm syndrome” and respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.”

Efficacy of glutathione therapy in relieving dyspnea associated with COVID-19 pneumonia: A report of 2 cases

As we discussed earlier NAC is as a precursor involved in glutathione production in the body (see above section) which is in large part why it’s so effective against sever COVID-19 infection. In May 2020, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center posted a trial to announcing a study using N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients with COVID-19. This was first-of-its-kind research; planned to enroll patients with severe disease and evaluate the use of 6 grams of NAC administered intravenously each day in addition to other treatments:

“… a medication called N-acetylcysteine can help fight the COVID-19 virus by boosting a type of cell in your immune system that attacks infections. By helping your immune system fight the virus, the researchers think that the infection will get better, which could allow the patient to be moved out of the critical care unit or go off a ventilator, or prevent them from moving into a critical care unit or going on a ventilator.”

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center posted a trial to

Glutathione – A Master Antioxidant

At approximately the same time Memorial Sloan-Kettering announced their study, Dr. Alexi Polonikov from Kursk State Medical University in Russia published papers18,19,20 proposing glutathione plays a crucial role in the body’s ability to respond to a COVID-19 infection:

“(1) oxidative stress contributes to hyper-inflammation of the lung leading to adverse disease outcomes such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure and death;

(2) poor antioxidant defense due to endogenous glutathione deficiency as a result of decreased biosynthesis and/or increased depletion of GSH is the most probable cause of increased oxidative damage of the lung, regardless which of the factors aging, chronic disease comorbidity, smoking or some others were responsible for this deficit.”

Endogenous deficiency of glutathione as the most likely cause of serious manifestations and death in patients with the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19): a hypothesis based on literature data and own observations

Dr. Roger Seheult Talk About COVID 19 and Oxidative Stress | Video

Dr. Roger Seheult on a MedCarm Video, talks about how oxidative damage plays a role in severe COVID 19 infection. Seheult explains how COVID-19 sets the stage for significantly increased oxidative stress by raising levels of superoxide, a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS).

More on Glutathione and Superoxide in COVID-19

This increase in superoxide occurs in people who have high levels due to chronic diseases that are comorbidities for COVID-19. These include heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

When the virus uses the ACE2 enzyme, it generates angiotensin II, which in turn generates superoxide. The ROS can be reduced with glutathione peroxidase as it oxidizes glutathione in the process of reducing H2O2 to water. A deficiency in glutathione creates a buildup of ROS, as Polonikov describes.

The powerful antioxidant function in glutathione has earned it the nickname “master antioxidant.” Antioxidants help keep other molecules from oxidizing. Most proteins are constructed from a set of 20 amino acids. The precise arrangement and sequence results in the specific biological activity associated with that protein.

However, glutathione is created from three amino acids — glutamate, glycine and cysteine — to form the glutathione molecule. One function of glutathione is to recycle other antioxidants. This helps increase the effectiveness and recycle the molecules. On the other hand, deficiencies in certain vitamins such as C, E and A can cause a glutathione deficiency.

Lyme Disease & COVID-19 – Dr. Richard Horowitz and David Roth | Video

Dr. Richard Horowitz, a well known Lyme and tick-borne disease expert, has experience dealing with cytokine storms, because they can occur in Lyme patients as well.

He and a patient advocate David Roth recently gave a presentation about how Dr. Horowitz’s use of glutathione and other innovative treatments, helped Roth recover from a serious case of COVID-19 last month.

Efficacy of glutathione therapy in relieving dyspnea associated with COVID-19 pneumonia: A report of 2 cases

Comorbid Risk Factors Linked to Glutathione Deficiency

In a review of the literature evaluating the effect of lung disease in COVID-19, researchers wrote that, in 2002, data showed glutathione protected against chronic inflammation during respiratory disease. They postulated that directly increasing glutathione levels in the lungs “would be a logical approach to protection against chronic inflammation and oxidant-mediated injury in lung disease.”

“Oxidative stress affect repair mechanisms and the immune control system, which is one of the main events of the inflammatory response which allows us also to conclude that oxidative stress is a major factor increasing the severity of COVID-19 especially during chronic diseases associat-ed with the fragility of the antioxidant system, suggesting to recommend antioxidants supplementation in therapeutic strategies against COVID-19”

Oxidative Stress Associated with SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) Increases the Severity of the Lung Disease – A Systematic Review

Besides protecting lung tissue, glutathione has also been studied in many of the comorbid conditions associated with severe COVID-19. For over a decade, researchers have noted that people with obesity, heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, and who are elderly, have a higher incidence of glutathione deficiency associated with those conditions. In other words comorbidities have the consequence of reducing glutathione levels in the body. Glutathione deficiency being one of causes of severe COVID-19 infection in individuals with comorbidities.

How to Naturally Raise Glutathione Levels

Foods that have a positive impact on glutathione production include cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, green tea, curcumin, rosemary and milk thistle. Getting quality sleep may also help.

Different types of exercise can influence your levels as well. In one study,56 researchers enrolled 80 healthy but sedentary volunteers to measure the type of exercise that may have the greatest effect. They found that aerobic training in combination with circuit weight training showed the greatest benefit.

Glutathione and COVID-19 | List of Studies & Papers

Zinc & Selenium

“The human body is a complex organism that uses multiple essential vitamins, minerals and elements to maintain optimal health. Selenium and zinc are two nutraceuticals that are important to immune health and a variety of other functions. While these two are important, it is crucial to understand they are part of your body’s overall requirements for health and wellness.

This means it’s important to recognize the roles zinc and selenium play while you seek to obtain a balance of other vitamins and minerals to support your health. Zinc is the second most abundant trace mineral found in the human body.[2] While vital to health, your body cannot store it. You must consume foods with zinc every day to meet your body’s needs.

Zinc is essential for the proper function of over 100 enzymes that relate to your brain, bones, kidneys, liver, pancreas and muscle development.[3] You may be familiar with the role that zinc plays in curtailing the common cold as research has found it can reduce the length of your cold by an average of 33%.[4]”

Please Note: The majority of the information in this section comes from an article Zinc and selenium deficiency leads to worse Covid outcomes by Dr. Mercola. All credit and rights belong to the original author.

Selenium is an important element your body uses to inhibit RNA virus replication and mutations. [5] The mineral was discovered in 1817. Selenium is added to the manufacture of glass and to make pigments for ceramics, paints and plastics.[6] You may be familiar with dandruff shampoo containing selenium since it’s toxic to the yeast-like fungus that creates dandruff. [7]

Zinc and COVID-19

Yet another study [1] has demonstrated the significance and importance of adequate levels of zinc and selenium in patients who have COVID-19, and especially in those who have underlined comorbidities identified to increase the severity of disease. These include high blood pressure, respiratory disease, obesity, cancer and Type 2 diabetes:

“Our data confirm that an insufficient Se (total Se and SELENOP) and Zn status at admission to the hospital is associated with an exceptionally high mortality risk and severe disease course with COVID-19.”

Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission

Deficits and Comorbities Together Lead to Worse Outcomes

In a study published on MDPI on Sep 22 2021 Titled Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission researchers sought predictive markers to better stratify (separate) patients at hospital admission. The study was in cross-sectional format involved 138 patients admitted to Ghent University Hospital and A Z Jan Palfijn Hospital in Ghent, Belgium. On admission, levels of trace elements were determined using serum or plasma levels for selenium, zinc, iron and copper.

Researchers also measured selenoprotein p levels, which require selenium for full expression. These enzymatically active proteins include: glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases or iodothyronine deiodinases. The crucial role these enzymes play in regulating reactive oxygen species means selenium is closely related to your immune and inflammatory responses.

The patients were aged 18 to 100 years with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis and 52% were over the age of 65 years. Additionally, 17% of the participants were over 80 years old. Data on age, diagnosis and sex were available for both study locations.

However, information on risk factors and comorbidities, such as Type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity, were only available at UZ Gent identified as Study 1, and not at JPH Ghent, identified as Study 2.[9] There were 79 participants in Study 1 and 59 participants in Study 2.

The researchers separated the classification for severity of disease into five categories. However, there were only 15 patients in category A who had mild disease. Therefore, the first and second classifications were merged into a category of patients who had low oxygen requirements for data processing.

On admission to the hospital, all patients in Study 1 had blood work to measure copper, iron, zinc and selenium status. Patients were then stratified into male and female, above and below age 65 and with or without comorbidities. The researchers found that copper levels were adequate in most of the patients and iron levels were higher in males than in females.

Patients with cancer had significant deficits in selenium and zinc. Three of the five patients with the lowest levels of iron, who also had profound selenium and zinc deficits, died during the study. Analysis of the data demonstrated that there were particularly low levels of selenium and zinc in the majority of patients who were hospitalized at one of two hospital sites.

When patients with comorbidities were analyzed, there was a pronounced deficit in selenium, zinc and iron in cancer patients and a higher survival chance in those cancer patients with higher levels of selenium.

Disease severity was associated with low levels of selenium and mortality was associated with zinc deficiency, particularly in patients with diabetes. However, the majority of those who died had a combination of selenium and zinc deficit. The researchers concluded that the data confirmed:[10]

… an insufficient Se (total Se and SELENOP) and Zn status at admission to the hospital is associated with an exceptionally high mortality risk and severe disease course with COVID-19...In view of the predictive accuracy of Se and Zn deficiency as mortality risk factor at hospital admission, supplemental Se and Zn supply should be considered to support the immune system, in particular for patients with inflammation-related comorbidities like cancer or diabetes mellitus.”

Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission

How the Body Uses Selenium and Signs of Deficiency

Another study titled Selenium (Se) plays a key role in the biological effects of some viruses: Implications for COVID-19 published in Environmental Research in early 2021 showed similar results to the above study. It demonstrated a relationship between selenium and severity of coronavirus disease. The writers of the paper proposed that insufficiency or deficiency could be a crucial factor in the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome from an infection with SARS-CoV-2.

The data looked at the relationship between soil levels of selenium in different cities in Hubei Province, China, and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 in those areas. They found baseline information that demonstrated selenium had an effect on the prevention and management of the infection.

Selenium is a nutritionally essential trace mineral found in foods and is necessary for the optimal function for many antioxidants.[12] For example, selenium is required for the expression of five identified glutathione peroxidases,[13] which reduce the damage from reactive oxygen species. These enzymes are also important in male fertility.

Selenium is found in the soil where it concentrates in plant foods. However, experts estimate that up to 1 billion people worldwide may be affected by a selenium deficiency due to inadequate intake.[14] Those who have a deficiency in selenium are at higher risk of conditions that affect the endocrine system (hormones), cardiovascular system (heart), immune system and reproductive system and that may affect mood and behavior.

Although it’s necessary to have plasma or serum testing to determine if you are deficient, there are several symptoms that may indicate you aren’t getting enough selenium in your diet. These can include:[15, 16, 17]

  • Hair Loss
  • Weight gain
  • Fatigue
  • Sick more often
  • Shortness of breath
  • Muscle weakness
  • Greater oxidative stress
  • Cognitive decline

Zinc is Key to a Healthy Immune System

“If you were not aware before COVID-19 that zinc helps shorten the length of viral illnesses, you probably have heard it since. Zinc is found in many cold preparations and is essential to cellular metabolism. Severe deficiency is rare[18] and often associated with an inherited condition called acrodermatitis enteropathica.

However, acquired deficiency or insufficiency is possible through a lack of dietary intake, malabsorption syndrome or chronic alcoholism. According to Oregon State University,[19] deficiency may affect up to 2 billion people worldwide. Zinc deficiency is attributed to more than 450,000 deaths every year in children under the age of 5.

Signs of zinc deficiency or high levels of insufficiency are related to the functions zinc has in the body.[20] This includes poor neurological function.[21] Zinc plays a strong role in your immune system, so low levels can lead to weak immunity.

Persistent diarrhea,[22] lack of appetite and hair loss are attributed to insufficient levels of zinc. Individuals with resistant acne may consider a zinc insufficiency,[23] or those who have lost the sense of taste and smell.[24]”

Quercetin Enhances Zinc Function against COVID-19 Infection

In 2010,[25] researchers recognized the intracellular function of zinc against coronaviruses, and the need for zinc ionophores to actively transport zinc into the cell. During 2020, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, a zinc ionophore, with zinc and azithromycin, was published[26] by Dr. Vladimir Zelenko who experienced significant success with them in his patient population.

Since that time, two studies have been published that demonstrate the function of quercetin is safe, far less expensive and much easier to obtain than hydroxychloroquine. In the first study,[27] there were 42 outpatients with COVID-19 who were divided to receive standard medical therapy or standard therapy with 600 milligrams (mg) of quercetin for seven days, followed by another seven days of 400 mg per day.

After one week, 16 of the 21 in the group taking quercetin tested negative for COVID-19 and 12 reported all symptoms had diminished. In the second study,[28] researchers gave 152 outpatients with COVID-19 a daily dose of 1,000 mg of quercetin for 30 days.

The scientists found there was a reduction in frequency and length of hospitalization in the patient group. There were also less need for noninvasive oxygen therapy and lower numbers of individuals who were admitted to the intensive care unit. They concluded:[29]

“QP (Quercetin Phytosome®) is a safe agent and in combination with standard care, when used in the early stage of viral infection, could aid in improving the early symptoms and help in preventing the severity of COVID-19 disease. It is suggested that a double-blind, placebo-controlled study should be urgently carried out to confirm the results of our study.”

Possible Therapeutic Effects of Adjuvant Quercetin Supplementation Against Early-Stage COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, and Open-Label Study

Foods High in Zinc and Selenium

I recommend getting as many of your essential vitamins, minerals and elements from your diet as possible. The recommended daily allowance for each is as follows:

  1. Zinc ranges from 2 mg for infants to 11 mg to 8 mg for men and women over the age of 19.[30] Food sources include oysters, pasture raised beef, dark meat chicken, pumpkin seeds and dry roasted cashews. If you are vegan 1-2tbsp of pumpkin seed butter (tastes much like peanut butter) in the morning with some fruit such as an apple or banana, is a quick and efficient way to get your recommended daily amount.
  2. Selenium ranges from 15 micrograms (mcg) for infants to 55 mcg for men and women over 19 years.[31] The best food sources of selenium are Brazil nuts (only 2-3 per day). Just 6-8 Brazil nuts deliver 544 mcg, or 989% of your daily allowance. Other sources include sardines, pasture raised beef, turkey, chicken and pasture-raised eggs. If you are vegan 2-3 brazil nuts per day is enough to get over 100% of your recommended daily amount.

For a short time, while you’re ill, it may be helpful to supplement with zinc and selenium. Supplementation with zinc greater than the upper intake level for one to two weeks during a cold has not resulted in serious side effects.[32] However, long-term consumption can result in a copper deficiency, which affects your immune system.

This is one of the reasons many Zinc supplements contain Copper as well, because it can increase deficiency in the other. It is best to take a Zinc + Copper combination supplement, or to ensure you also get adequate copper intake through your diet.

Dietary supplements for selenium can be found in multivitamins and as a standalone product. Data demonstrates supplementation lowers total plasma cholesterol but does not prevent heart disease. In one study[33] reported by the NIH, selenium in combination with vitamins C and E, beta carotene and zinc improved memory and semantic fluency test scores.

Zinc, Selenium and COVID-19 | List of Studies & Papers

  1. Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission “Our data confirm that an insufficient Se (total Se and SELENOP) and Zn status at admission to the hospital is associated with an exceptionally high mortality risk and severe disease course with COVID-19.”
  2. Selenium (Se) plays a key role in the biological effects of some viruses: Implications for COVID-19 “Human Se levels may contribute to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune effects in COVID-19. Therefore, we suggest that serum Se levels in patients with COVID-19 and clinical selenite drug therapy should be considered to support disease treatment and management.”


Quercetin is a type of flavonoid antioxidant found in plants commonly consumed by humans, including leafy greens, tomatoes, berries and broccoli. It’s technically considered a “plant pigment,” which is why it’s exclusively found in deeply colored, nutrient-packed fruits and vegetables.

Flavonoid polyphenols are most beneficial for down-regulating or suppressing inflammatory pathways and functions. Quercetin is considered the most diffused and researched nature-derived flavonol there is; it shows strong effects on immunity and inflammation caused by leukocytes and other intracellular signals.

Besides enhancing Zinc and other antioxidants against COVID-19…Quercetin has significant capability to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 replication and multi-faceted anti-inflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions.

Best FormsQuercetin Complex – a synergistic formula that is intended to offer additional antioxidant ad/or anti-aging support.
Worst Forms-use reputable brands and check ingredients carefully for amount of active ingredient
Notes – Other anti-oxidants can essentially recycle oxidized quercetin. Therefore works synergistically with Vitamin C, Astaxanthin, etc
– Zinc ionophore means it helps shuttle zinc into cells. Therefore works synergistically taken with Zinc and Selenium
Natural derivative of food and therefore little risk. Even at doses of 500mg 2x daily for 3+ months it was shown safe, even for pregnant or breastfeeding women (consult your doctor)
Magnesium Table – Best & Worst Forms

Please Note: The majority of the information in this section comes from an article Quercetin — An Alternative to Hydroxychloroquine, and More by Dr. Mercola. All credit and rights belong to the original author.

Quercetin Health Benefits List

Research shows that anti-inflammatory foods containing quercetin can help manage a number of inflammatory health problems including: heart disease and blood vessel problems, allergies, infections, chronic fatigue, and symptoms related to autoimmune disorders like arthritis.

Ultimately bioflavonoids like quercetin help to slow aging by reducing oxidative stress on the body. Although oxidative stress is normal, things like poor diet, stress, lack of sleep and environmental toxins increase oxidative damage far beyond what is healthy, or what the body can handle.

Quercetin is heavily involved in regulating the immune system’s response to external stressors via cell signaling pathways: kinases and phosphatases, two types of enzyme and membrane proteins required for proper cellular function.

  1. Lowers Inflammation – Research shows us inflammation is the root of most disease including: cancer, cognitive decline, autoimmune disorders, and heart disease. Quercetin fights oxidation by scavenging dangerous “free radicals” which interfere with normal cell function; damage cell membranes, effect DNA expression, increase cell mutation and kill healthy cells. As well it reduces expression of inflammatory genes such as interleukin.
  2. Fights Allergies – Histamines are chemicals released by the immune system in response to an allergen; symptoms include: watery eyes, hives, runny nose, swollen lips or tongue, indigestion, cough, etc. Quercetin is a natural antihistamine and anti-inflammatory, which means it helps regulate histamines coming from immune cells reduces those pesky allergy symptoms. Studies conducted on mice suggest that it may be equivalent at fighting allergies as some prescription medications, all with little to no side effects.
  3. Supports Heart Health – Studies have shown Quercetin can lower risk of cardiovascular disease, vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and obesity, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, hypertension, and even death.
  4. Helps Fight PainStudies suggest quercetin reduces inflammatory pain associated with: arthritis (Rheumatoid arthritis) as well as prostate (prostatitis), bladder and respiratory infections.
  5. Can Improve Energy and EnduranceStudies show quercetin can improve blood flow and subsequently, athletic performance; healthier blood vessels = improved oxygen and nutrients transport = better athletic performance. Exercise also puts strain on the immune system. One study showed quercetin through reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, can bolster the immune system post-exercise to reduce susceptibility to illness.
  6. Can Help Fight Cancer – One study showed a nutrient dense diet rich in quercetin & other antioxidants lowered the risk of Cancer. Another study showed quercetin has a unique antiproliferative (prevent spread) effect on cancerous cells, via modulation of either EGFR or estrogen-receptor pathways and slows tumor growth. It’s also shown to have chemo-preventive activity, and helps alleviate symptoms related to cancer treatments such as radiation or chemotherapy.
  7. Protects Skin HealthStudies show quercetin can block mast cells. It can also block release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF, helping inhibit symptoms related to skin inflammation. Due to it’s anti-histamine, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, Quercetin helps protect skin from effects of skin disorders like dermatitis and photosensitivity as well as allergic and inflammatory skin diseases such as eczema.
  8. Protects Liver HealthStudies on rats (used because of their similarities to humans) show protective effects with acute liver injury: “quercetin, by multiple mechanisms interplay, demonstrates hepatoprotective effect on liver-injury induced by alcohol, by increasing ethanol metabolizing enzyme activities, increasing antioxidant system activities against oxidative stress, lowering the expressions of pro-inflammation cytokines.” Another 2017 study found quercetin attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice through inhibiting macrophages infiltration, stating quercetin “holds promise as potential therapeutic agent for human fibrotic liver disease”, a condition triggered by liver injury and inflammation.
  9. Protects Against Neurological DisordersResearch shows quercetin’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties lend it to be neuroprotective, and reduce risk for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia when delivered early on in disease progression :“findings suggest a possible new protective role for dietary flavonoids on alzheimer’s disease (AD).” it does this by boosting protection mainly of increased Aβ clearance and reducing astrogliosis, which is related to destruction of neurons.

Quercetin Rich Foods

With the advent of processed foods, many vital nutrients have been lost or minimized in the average persons diet. Quercetin, which is present in fresh fruits, vegetables and berries is one of them. The average non-pHD individual lacks the knowledge that most medicines have their roots in nature, and are easily swayed by some of the worst “celebrity” scientists who have sold out to big pharma long ago, to believe antioxidants and nutrients are pseudoscience; that should be replaced exclusively by patent medications and manufactured medical technology. Of course this is absolutely absurd…but you’d be surprised how many people believe this and treat their body like a dumpster with garbage, pesticide laden food, and then wonder why they get sick.

“The great number of benefits that these compounds contribute to humans cannot be overstated … An argument can be made that not only could quercetin prove beneficial to our health, but an absence of it may prove detrimental in the long term.”

Modern Discontent Quercetin Anthology Series

Quercetin is a flavonoid found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. In fact many of the top “superfoods” such as red wine, green tea, kale and blueberries all have quercetin in them; it’s part of what makes them so super. The quercetin content in any given food is largely dependent on light exposure, so depending on the country you’re in…different foods will top the list of most quercetin-rich. Supplements do have their place however, especially in situations like a pandemic.

Estimates show that most people typically get between five and 40 milligrams of it a day from eating common plant foods; however, if you stick with a nutrient-dense diet overall, you’re likely to take in much more — as much as 500 milligrams daily according to some reports; common oral dosages are 500 milligrams taken twice daily.

Foods commonly rich in Quercetin include:

  • onions (red onion) and shallots
  • apples
  • peppers
  • broccoli
  • cabbage
  • cocoa
  • raw asparagus
  • Capers
  • olive oil (favorite)
  • green peppers
  • tomatoes
  • red leaf lettuce
  • strawberries
  • raspberries
  • blueberries
  • cranberries
  • black currants
  • green tea (my personal favorite)
  • Herbs, including sage, American elder, St. John’s wort and ginkgo bilob

Quercetin Mechanisms of Action

Quercetin been shown by the Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, and in dozens of studies to have anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities.

General mechanisms of action of this nutrient include: [3]

  • Antioxidant activity — Antioxidants help prevent oxidative damage from harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). Quercetin acts as a free radical scavenger, and its activity can be further enhanced by vitamin C.
  • Anti-inflammatory activity – This is in part responsible for quercetin’s cardiovascular (heart health) benefits.
  • Inhibition of platelet aggregation (blood clotting)
  • Anti-allergy activities – inhibits release of histamine and other allergic substances
  • Immunomodulation (immuno = immune system, modulate = regulate, modulates immune system)
  • Anticancer activity
  • Antiviral activity — It’s been found to reduce replication of many viruses, including HIV, hepatitis C, enterovirus 71, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and SARS-CoV-2, by targeting the proteases in these viruses
  • Zinc ionophore — Quercetin helps zinc enter your cells. Zinc, in turn, has potent antiviral activity

Quercetin and COVID-19

Zinc has antiviral activity, and quercetin helps shuttle the zinc into the cell. But quercetin also has other mechanisms of action that make it useful in the fight against COVID-19. This is outlined in the paper Quercetin: An Over-The-Counter Hydroxychloroquine, or Something More? – Part II: Targeting SARS-COV2:

“Quercetin modulates NLRP3 inflammasome, an immune system component involved in the uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines that occurs during a cytokine storm.”

Quercetin: An Over-The-Counter Hydroxychloroquine, or Something More?
Part II: Targeting SARS-COV2

For example, quercetin has been shown to:

Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to ACE2 receptor docking.

Computational modeling studies have shown quercetin can bind to the ACE2 receptor and the spike protein interface, thereby inhibiting the two from binding together. By preventing viral attachment, it helps prevent viral entry into the cell. Commenting on one of these studies, Modern Discontent notes. [8]

“Although [a] computer modeled study, the evidence here suggests that quercetin’s binding activity to ACE2 is comparable to other standard of care drugs used to treat SARS-CoV-2 (eg. Remdesivir, Lopinavir, Ritonavir).”

Quercetin: An Over-The-Counter Hydroxychloroquine, or Something More?
Part II: Targeting SARS-COV2

Inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production in macrophages.

TNF-α is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation, secreted by activated macrophages, a type of immune cell that digests foreign substances, microbes and other harmful or damaged components.

Inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines and histamine by modulating calcium influx into the cell [11]

Stabilize mast cells and regulate the basic functional properties of immune cells

Thereby allowing it to inhibit “a huge panoply of molecular targets in the micromolar concentration range, either by down-regulating or suppressing many inflammatory pathways and functions.”[12]

Act as a zinc ionophore, i.e., a compound that shuttles zinc into your cells.[13]

This is one of the mechanisms that can account for the effectiveness seen with hydroxychloroquine, which is also a zinc ionophore (In other words it enhances Zinc.):

“Quercetin – As discussed above, the antiviral roles of zinc are well documented. However, protection of cells against viral appropriation of cellular metabolism to replicate viral RNA requires adequate intracellular zinc. Ionophores play a critical role in facilitating transport of zinc into cells. The commonly available flavonoid quercetin is a zinc ionophore and has been shown to facilitate transport of zinc across lipid membranes. This is particularly relevant as chloroquine is also a zinc ionophore, which has been postulated as a possible mechanism for its apparent efficacy against SARS-CoV-v2.[240, 241]”

“Quercetin is also important as one of multiple flavonoids shown in vitro to block the activity of MERS-CoV 3CLpro, a critical enzyme for coronavirus replication. Animal studies are limited at this time but support efficacy[242]”

In a molecular docking study looking for agents that could bind to the SARS-CoV-2 Viral Spike Protein and thus have potential to inhibit its infectivity, researchers found quercetin to be the fifth most effective.[243] However, quercetin has low bioavailability and therefor requires special formulations to achieve clinically effective blood levels. A trial with a phytosomal quercetin formulation has been started in Italy on 660 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (private communication with study PI).

Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery

Boost interferon response to viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, by inhibiting the expression of casein kinase II (CK2)[14]

CK2 is an enzyme that is fundamental to controlling homeostasis at the cellular level. There is evidence that it down-regulates the ability a cell has to generate Type 1 interferon when attacked by a virus.

It does this by inhibiting retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I),[15] which has protein sensors that signal genetic expression of type 1 interferon by identifying the replication of RNA viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2. Quercetin inhibits the expression of CK2, which slows the replication of RNA viruses.[16]

Interferons are a subset of cytokines discovered in 1957.[17] These cells are often the initial defense against viruses. There are two types and three forms of interferon [18]. The different types are based on the function of the cytokine:

  • Type 1 interferon, there are alpha and beta – help cells resist viruses
  • Type 2 interferon has the gamma form – aids in responding to infections and cancer growth

The name “interferon” came from the ability of Type 1 to interfere with the virus’s ability to duplicate; A cell secretes interferon when a foreign substance, like a virus, is detected.

However, the interferon does not function by attacking the virus. Instead, it tells the infected cell and the cells that surround the infected cell to make proteins that stop viral replication. In a nutshell, quercetin stops CK2 from interfering with the action of Type 1 interferon so cells receive the signal to stop viral replication.

Modulate NLRP3 inflammasome

An immune system component involved in the uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines that occurs during a cytokine storm.[19]

Exert a direct antiviral activity against SARS-CoV [20, 21, 22]

Quercetin’s general antiviral capacity has been attributed to three primary mechanisms of action:

  1. Binding to the spike protein, thereby inhibiting its ability to infect host cells [23]
  2. Inhibiting replication of already infected cells
  3. Reducing infected cells’ resistance to treatment with antiviral medication

Inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease [24]

The Front Line Critical COVID-19 Care Alliance (FLCCC) early treatment protocol, includes quercetin at a dose of 250 milligrams twice a day, in combination with 100 mg elemental zinc and 500 mg to 1,000 mg of vitamin C twice a day.

Quercetin and COVID-19 | Studies & Papers

In Modern Discontent Quercetin Anthology Series – Part 3 they review a portion of the clinical trials on Quercetin and COVID-19 that have taken place:

20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment

Found that people who took zinc and zinc ionophores – quinine drops and quercetin – had lower incidence of COVID-19 infection than the control group. Over the course of the study (20 weeks), only two of the 53 test subjects became symptomatic, compared to 12 of the 60 controls. As noted by Modern Discontent:

“Although this didn’t test quercetin in isolation, the study does suggest that over-the-counter, easily accessible compounds may be extremely beneficial in fighting against COVID, especially when taken as a prophylactic.”

Modern Discontent Quercetin Anthology Series – Part 3 Commentary on 20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment

Possible Therapeutic Effects of Adjuvant Quercetin Supplementation Against Early-Stage COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, and Open-Label Study

In this trial 76 outpatients who tested positive but had only mild symptoms were given 1,000 mg of Quercetin Phytosome® (quercetin in sunflower phospholipids that increase oral absorption 20-fold) per day for 30 days, in addition to standard care (analgesics, oral steroids and antibiotics). Another 76 patients were given standard of care only.

In the quercetin group, only 9.2% of participants went on to require hospitalization, compared to 28.9% of patients who received standard of care only. According to the authors:[30]

“The results revealed a reduction in frequency and length of hospitalization, in need of non-invasive oxygen therapy, in progression to intensive care units and in number of deaths...The results also confirmed the very high safety profile of quercetin and suggested possible anti-fatigue and pro-appetite properties. QP [Quercetin Phytosome®] is a safe agent and in combination with standard care, when used in early stage of viral infection, could aid in improving the early symptoms and help in preventing the severity of COVID-19 disease.”

Possible Therapeutic Effects of Adjuvant Quercetin Supplementation Against Early-Stage COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, and Open-Label Study

Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery | Study

This study highlighted quercetin’s promotion of SIRT2, which inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome:

“It is noteworthy that curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, and berberine have all been shown to promote AMPK.[374] AMPK is a promoter of SIRT2, also known to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome assembly.[23]”

Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery

Quercetin and Vitamin C: An Experimental, Synergistic Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Related Disease (COVID-19)

This study highlighted quercetin’s usefulness as a COVID-19 treatment when used in conjunction with vitamin C. The vitamin C recycles oxidized quercetin, producing a synergistic effect. It also enhances quercetin’s antiviral capacity.

“Quercetin displays a broad range of antiviral properties which can interfere at multiple steps of pathogen virulence -virus entry, virus replication, protein assembly– and that these therapeutic effects can be augmented by the co-administration of vitamin C. Furthermore, due to their lack of severe side effects and low-costs, we strongly suggest the combined administration of these two compounds for both the prophylaxis and the early treatment of respiratory tract infections, especially including COVID-19 patients.”

Quercetin and Vitamin C: An Experimental, Synergistic Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Related Disease (COVID-19)

List of Other Studies & Papers on Quercetin & COVID-19

  1. The role of quercetin, flavonols and flavones in modulating inflammatory cell function “quercetin affects immunity and inflammation by acting mainly on leukocytes and targeting many intracellular signaling kinases and phosphatases, enzymes and membrane proteins often crucial for a cellular specific function.”
  2. Possible Therapeutic Effects of Adjuvant Quercetin Supplementation Against Early-Stage COVID-19 Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, and Open-Label Study “results revealed a reduction in frequency and length of hospitalization, in need of non-invasive oxygen therapy, in progression to intensive care units and in number of deaths. The results also confirmed the very high safety profile of quercetin”
  3. Modern Discontent Quercetin Anthology Series
  4. Zinc ionophore activity of quercetin and epigallocatechin-gallate: from Hepa 1-6 cells to a liposome model “The ionophore activity of dietary polyphenols may underlay the raising of labile zinc levels triggered in cells by polyphenols and thus many of their biological actions.”
  5. Evaluation of antiviral activities of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract, quercetin, quercetrin and cinanserin on murine coronavirus and dengue virus infection “The compounds in H. cordata contribute to the superior antiviral efficacy of the EA fraction which lacked cytotoxicity in vitro and acute toxicity in vivo. H. cordata has much potential for the development of antiviral agents against coronavirus and dengue infections.”
  6. Characteristics of flavonoids as potent MERS‐CoV 3C‐like protease inhibitors “this study suggests that an antiviral effect of some flavonoids is directly from their structural characteristics binding to viral proteases.”
  7. Repurposing Therapeutics for COVID-19: Supercomputer-Based Docking to the SARS-CoV-2 Viral Spike Protein and Viral Spike Protein-Human ACE2 Interface
  8. Quercetin and Vitamin C: An Experimental, Synergistic Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Related Disease (COVID-19) “Quercetin displays a broad range of antiviral properties which can interfere at multiple steps of pathogen virulence -virus entry, virus replication, protein assembly- and that these therapeutic effects can be augmented by the co-administration of vitamin C. Furthermore, due to their lack of severe side effects and low-costs, we strongly suggest the combined administration of these two compounds for both the prophylaxis and the early treatment of respiratory tract infections, especially including COVID-19 patients.”
  9. Quercetin: New Hype for COVID-19 – Parallels drawn with early data on hydroxychloroquine

Vitamin D3

We wrote an article on COVID-19 and Vitamin D3 showing mountains of evidence that Vitamin D3 deficiency is associated with severe COVID-19 infection…If you live in a country with long days and lots of sun, and get outdoors often, then your risk is probably pretty low. However for many people including those in Canada and the USA, vitamin D deficiency is a widespread and serious problem. Below we will highlight some of the key points of that article on Vitamin D3 and COVID-19.

A study on vitamin d levels and respiratory diseases observed 9940 Germans, 50-75 years old and did follow-ups up to 15 years later. The study stated vitamin D levels of 50 nmol/L were healthy, and levels under 30 nmol/L were unhealthy or deficient. These are pretty much accepted standards for healthy blood serum levels of Vitamin D3.

Best Forms & Synergy – K2 helps activate the Vitamin D and make it more bio-available (easier for body to absorb) and prevents any chance of arterial calcification.
Worst Forms
Dosing– The recommended daily intake of vitamin D ranges from 400 to 600 IU (by the IOM),[26] 400 IU (by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, United Kingdom),[27] and to 1500-2000 IU (by the Endocrine Society),[28] and 2000 IU (by the Canadian Society).[29] The daily upper safe limit for vitamin D has been set at 4000 IU by IOM and 10,000 IU by the Endocrine Society.[26 , 28]”
– Those who are overweight on average have lower Vitamin D blood serum levels and may need higher doses of Vitamin D3 to raise blood serum to health levels.
Notes– 20 minutes of skin exposure to sunlight generates roughly 20,000IU of Vitamin D3 in the body.
– Extremely safe to take even in very high doses
Magnesium Table – Best & Worst Forms

Vitamin D3 and COVID-19

“Through its interactions with a multitude of cells, vitamin D may have several ways to reduce the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and COVID-19: reducing the survival and replication of viruses, reducing risk of inflammatory cytokine production, increasing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 concentrations, and maintaining endothelial integrity.”

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity

Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study

A “quasi-experimental study” titled Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study analyzed vitamin D supplementation of residents in a French nursing home was conducted preceding and during a COVID-19 outbreak in the nursing home. Residents were normally given a bolus dose of 80,000 IU vitamin D3 every two to three months. COVID-19 affected many of the residents starting in March 2020.

Fifty seven of the residents, who had received 80,000 IU vitamin D3 in the preceding month, were included in the “intervention group” while nine who had not were included in the “comparator group”. The mean age of the residents was 87 _+ 9 years. The mean follow-up time was 36 +_ 7 days. Forty-seven (83%) of the intervention group survived compared to only four (44%) of the comparator group (p = 0.02). The fully adjusted HR for mortality according to vitamin D supplementation was 0.11 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.48, p = 0.003).

Immunophenotype of COVID-19 and Vit D deficiency

Scientists note that during the winter season there are upticks of multiple types of infections. If you preform a biochemical analysis of COVID-19 and compare it to what Vitamin D deficiency looks like in an individual, you will notice that COVID-19 and Vitamin D deficiency are identical with IL-6, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon, TH1 adaptive response, and coagulability (hypercoagulability), which were all elevated in both, and ACE2 expression was reduced in both conditions as well.

Vitamin D Helps Immune Cells Produce Antimicrobial Peptides

To oversimplify Vitamin D activates immune cell production of AMPs including cathelicidins and defensins, which are antiviral, antimicrobial and participate in a wide range of immune system activities, which include destruction of proteins that envelop viruses, and help block viral entry into your cells.

Source Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity

“Many studies have shown that vitamin D activates immune cells to produce AMPs, which include molecules known as cathelicidins and defensins [64, 65, 66, 67]. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity, not only antimicrobial but also antiviral, and can inactivate the influenza virus [68]. The antiviral effects of AMPs are the result of, among other effects, the destruction of envelope proteins by cathelicidin [69, 70, 71].”

Vitamin D Reduces Inflammatory Cytokine Production

To oversimplify, Vitamin D can reduce inflammatory cytokine production, which leads to reduced vascular injury, and consequently severity of the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19 infection.

“Elevated inflammation is an important risk factor for COVID-19 [16]. For example, much of the pathogenesis surrounding COVID-19 infection involves microvascular injury induced by hypercytokinemia, namely, by an important inflammatory cytokine—interleukin 6 (IL-6) [74,75]. Thus, it is useful to examine the role of vitamin D in reducing inflammation.

A number of reviews have suggested that one of the hallmarks of COVID-19 severity is the presence of a “cytokine storm” [76, 77, 78, 79]. The “cytokine storm” is defined as the state of out-of-control release of a variety of inflammatory cytokines [79]. Observational studies, however, have found that cytokine concentrations are elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to controls, but not as high as in some other diseases.”

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity

Vitamin D can limit RAS-Mediated Bradykinin Storm in COVID-19

Several recent publications looked at the role of bradykinin (BK) in the progression of COVID-19. In a report titled A mechanistic model and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 involving a RAS-mediated bradykinin storm stated:

“Jacobson used the Summit supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Lab in Tennessee; the second fastest supercomputer in the world. And in the summer of 2020 analyzed data on more than 40,000 genes from 17,000 samples from COVID-19 patients. The analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 actively upregulates ACE2 receptors in places where they’re typically expressed at low levels, including the lungs.”

“Additionally, an imbalance in RAS was also found, represented by decreased ACE in combination with increases in ACE2, renin, angiotensin, key RAS receptors, kininogen and many kallikrein enzymes that activate it, and both BK receptors, which produces a BK storm.

Since BK dilates blood vessels and increases permeability, excessive BK leads to fluid to soft tissue fluid accumulation. This leads to several adverse effects seen in COVID-19 patients, including on the heart, vascular system, pulmonary system, brain, and muscles

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity

To oversimplify Renin which is found elevated in COVID-19 patients, plays a role in RAS imbalance, which together with other factors produces a Bradykinin Storm (BK). Vitamin D is a negative endocrine RAS modulator and inhibits renin expression and generation [40], thus disrupting the production of BK Storm.

“and it appears likely that vitamin D deficiency amelioration (improvement) would limit the COVID-19 BK storm. However, further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of vitamin D in this context”

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity

Vitamin D3 25(OH)2D can Increase Surfactant Production

A study was published Oct 1 1005 titled Regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein gene expression by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which showed evidence that 1alpha,25(OH)2D increases surfactant production.

Essentially surfactant is essential during inhalation and exhalation to facilitate gas exchange across the alveoli wall. Without surfactant the alveoli can collapse, thus preventing your lungs from operating properly.

“Surfactant protein D clears influenza A from the lungs of mice [92]. There is some evidence that 1alpha,25(OH)2D increases surfactant production [93]. Such activity can be generalized to other viruses.”

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity

Vitamin D Reduces Lung Damage

The role of vitamin D regarding ACE in response to SARS-CoV-2. ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme. | COVID 19 and Vitamin D
The role of vitamin D regarding ACE in response to SARS-CoV-2. ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme.

“The vitamin D metabolite calcitriol increases expression of ACE2 in the lungs of experimental animals [99]. (Calcitriol has also been found to increase ACE2 protein expression in rat gmicroglia BV2 cells [100].) The additional ACE2 expressed as a consequence of vitamin D supplementation might reduce lung injury [101] because it can promote binding of the virus to the pulmonary epithelium. As mentioned, calcitriol also induces alpha-1-antitrypsin synthesis, which is vital for lung integrity and repair, by CD4+ T cells, which is required for the increased production of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Calcitriol should not be used to treat COVID-19 given the risk of hypercalcemia; however, vitamin D supplementation increases calcitriol concentrations [102] through its regulated conversion in the proximal tubules of the kidney and in extrarenal cells at the nuclear membrane.

High concentrations of angiotensin II may cause ARDS or cardiopulmonary injury. Renin, by contrast, is a proteolytic enzyme and a positive regulator of angiotensin II. Vitamin D is a potent inhibitor of renin. Vitamin D supplementation prevents angiotensin II accumulation and decreases proinflammatory activity of angiotensin II by suppressing the release of renin in patients infected with COVID, thus reducing the risk of ARDS, myocarditis, or cardiac injury [103]. Although vitamin D increases expression of ACE2, which promotes the binding of the virus, it prevents the constriction response of the lung blood vessel in COVID-19, as illustrated in Figure 2 [104] (permission to reuse granted by copyright holder). ARDS is also due to a variety of mechanisms, including cytokine storm, neutrophil activation, and increased (micro)coagulation, and it is likely that vitamin D supplementation would counter those mechanisms [105]. ARDS is responsible for approximately 70% of fatal COVID-19 cases [106].”

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity
Vitamin D and MMP-9 in COVID-19

MMP-9 plays a key role in Lung injury in acute lung diseases including in COVID-19 patients, and Vitamin D is vital to MMP-9 circulation. Therefore Vitamin D can help mitigate respiratory issues in severe COVID-19 infection.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases in acute lung injury: mediators of injury and drivers of repair elaborated on the role MMP-9 plays in Lung injury an acute lung diseases such as ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.)
  2. Fibroproliferation Occurs Early in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Impacts on Outcome explained the role of fibroproliferation in ARDS
  3. Matrix metalloproteinases in acute lung injury: mediators of injury and drivers of repair elaborated on the role MMP-9 plays in Lung injury an acute lung diseases such as ARDS
  4. Distinct and early increase in circulating MMP-9 in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure investigated correlations between respiratory failure and MMP-9 in 21 COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure in comparison with 7 COVID-19 patients without respiratory failure.
  5. Article Navigation Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP‐1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? showed Vitamin D’s pivitol status in MMP-9 levels.
  6. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits matrix metalloproteinases induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced the production of MMP-1, MMP-7, and MMP-10. MMP-9 gene expression, secretion and activity were significantly inhibited by Vitamin D3 irrespective of infection.

Vitamin D Reduces Risk of Endothelial Dysfunction

The endothelium is a layer of cells that line the blood and lymph vessels in the body, an area in which COVID-19 inflicts much of it’s damage.

Inflammation and coagulopathy are two hallmarks of severe COVID-19, which endothelial dysfunction plays a significant role in causing. A number of papers have discussed how vitamin D can reduce risk of ED.

  1. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to COVID-19-associated vascular inflammation and coagulopathy sh owed how endothelial dysfunction (ED) contributes to COVID-19-associated vascular inflammation and coagulopathy.
  2. Vitamin D deficiency in association with endothelial dysfunction: Implications for patients with COVID-19 showed that vitamin D likely protects against ED by reducing oxidative stress and NF-kB activation.
  3. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion by mediating the upregulation of GCLC and GSH in endothelial cells treated with acetoacetate (ketosis) showed that vitamin D inhibits ketone induced oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion in HUVEC.

Vitamin D Helps Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

A meta-analysis of 25 RCT (Randomized controlled trials) studies on Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections published in the British medical journal, analyzed if Vitamin D supplementation improved mortality in respiratory infections for non-COVID patients. The study results found that Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute ARI (Acute Respiratory illnesses).

“Our study reports a major new indication for Vitamin D supplementation: the prevention of acute respiratory tract infection. We also show that people who are very deficient in vitamin D and those receiving daily or weekly supplementation without additional bolus doses experienced particular benefit. Our results add to the body of evidence supporting the introduction of public health measures such as food fortification to improve vitamin d status, particularly in settings where profound vitamin D deficiency is common.

Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (BMJ)

Prof Roger Seheult Vitamin Ds role in prevention and treatment of COVID 19 | VIDEO

Professor Roger Seheult, MD explains the important role Vitamin D may have in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Dr. Seheult illustrates how Vitamin D works, summarizes the best available data and clinical trials on vitamin D, and discusses vitamin D dosage recommendations.

Patrick Holford – Flu Fighters Series – Other Approaches to COVID | Podcast

In this Podcast author of the Book Flu Fighters, Patrick Holford discusses with experts, Vitamin D and Ivermectin in prevention and early treatment of COVID-19.

Vitamin D3 and COVID-19 | List of Studies & Papers

  1. Editorial low population mortality from COVID-19 in countries south of latitude 35 degrees North supports vitamin D as a factor determining severity
  2. Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study found nursing home residents who received 80,000 IU vitamin D3 every two to three months had statistically significant lower rates of severe COVID-19 infection, and a better survival rate overall. “bolus vitamin D3 supplementation during or just before COVID-19 was associated in frail elderly with less severe COVID-19 and better survival rate.”
  3. Pharmacokinetics of a single, large dose of cholecalciferol found that bolus vitamin D3 supplementation monthly would be appropriate for nursing-home residents.
  4. Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19 found that SARS-CoV-2 positivity was linked with lower vitamin D levels (avg. 27nmol/L), while those who tested negative had healthy vitamin d levels (avg. 52nmol/L).
  5. Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY found old age, increased obesity and darker skin color were the same three things that put people at higher risk for Vitamin D deficiency.
  6. A review of 14 studies was published titled Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity
  7. A brief review of interplay between vitamin D and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Implications for a potential treatment for COVID-19 found that SARS-CoV-2 tested positive less in those with vitamin D levels from 40-50 ng/mL, and stated that this may be due to the effect of vitamin D in reducing survival and replication of the virus by induction of cathelicidin and defensins as well as by increasing concentrations of free ACE2, thereby preventing SARS-CoV-2 from entering cells via the ACE2 receptor.
  8. Cytokine Levels in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 and Other Conditions found evidence that COVID-19 patients have increased proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor TNFalpha, IL-6 and IL 8 levels.
  9. Characterization of the Inflammatory Response to Severe COVID-19 Illness presented evidence that IL-6 concentrations were highly correlated with age-stratified COVID-19 deaths.
  10. COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation and escalation of patient care: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study ound that COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation were more at risk for escalation to respiratory support or death (40% with hyper-inflammation died vs 26% who didn’t have hyperinflation.) This shows that hyperinflation is associated with COVID -19 severity and death. Therefore logically treatments which can reduce inflammation or hyperinflation can help reduce infection COVID severity and death rates, through inflammatory reducing mechanisms.
  11. A mechanistic model and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 involving a RAS-mediated bradykinin storm “and it appears likely that vitamin D deficiency amelioration (improvement) would limit the COVID-19 BK storm. However, further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of vitamin D in this context”
  12. The link between vitamin D deficiency and Covid-19 in a large population found that lower vitamin D levels are associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in females.
  13. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren found that those who had the 1200 IU vitamin D3 had a 10.8% prevalence of influenza A, as opposed to the placebo group which had an 18.6% rate of influenza A infection.
  14. low plasma 25 (OH) vitamin D blood plasma levels, as an associated risk of increased COVID-19 infection analyzed over 14k subjects and found that of the positive SARS-CoV-2 population, only a small amount had normal vitamin D levels, while the rest had low or ‘suboptimal levels of Vitamin D.
  15. The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality found that the higher the vitamin D levels of that country, the lower the COVID 19 cases and mortality. Countries where the population had very high vitamin D levels above 50nmol/L experienced an almost 0 incidence of mortality from COVID-19.
  16. Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Lower in Patients with Positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 (Nutrients) found that those who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 in a PCR test had higher Vitamin D levels then those who tested positive for the infection.
  17. SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels proved that vitamin D levels are inversely related with SARS-CoV-2 Positivity rate. Right below Vitamin D blood levels of 50 ng/mL SARS-CoV-2 infection rates rapidly increase.
  18. COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis found that D3 levels had an inverse correlation to COVID-19 mortality risk. In other words as vitmain D3 blood levels drop, COVID-19 mortality rates increase. They pointed out that the data shows D3 deficiency plays a role in COVID-19 infection, rather then COVID-19 infection causing D3 deficiency.
  19. A brief review of interplay between vitamin D and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Implications for a potential treatment for COVID-19 found that SARS-CoV-2 tested positive less in those with vitamin D levels from 40-50 ng/mL, and stated that this may be due to the effect of vitamin D in reducing survival and replication of the virus by induction of cathelicidin and defensins as well as by increasing concentrations of free ACE2, thereby preventing SARS-CoV-2 from entering cells via the ACE2 receptor.
  20. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections found that Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute ARI (Acute Respiratory illnesses).
  21. Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19 found during autopsies in patients with COVID-19, there was a 9 fold increase in blood clots in the lung tissue, when compared to autopsies of individuals without the infection.
  22. Vitamin D Supplementation in COVID-19 Patients: A Clinical Case Series found that individuals given high doses of vitamin D (50,000 IU daily) had reduced inflammation, and a shorter length of hospitalization.
  23. Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients found those who had vitamin d blood serum levels >12 ng/mL (above) had a much better probability of survival vs those with levels under >12 ng/mL.
  24. Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study found those who took calcifediol (direct bioavilable form of vitamin D) had a 25x lower incidence of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission.
  25. Cholecalciferol or Calcifediol in the Management of Vitamin D Deficiency found that those who had calcifediol treatments had a lower incidence of ICU admission compared to those who didn’t receive it.
  26. Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study found those that received the standard of care in France – 80,000 IU Vit D every 2-3 months – within 1 month prior to COVID-19 infection, compared to individuals who had received it further out than 1 month.
  27. Short term, high-dose vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled, study found those that received 60,000 IU’s of Vitamin D3 for 7 days had a roughly 3X lower SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate, compared to those who received placebo.
  28. Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers found that patients with blood serum levels of vitamin D above 20 ng/mL were more prevalent in the asymptomatic group (62) vs patients with vit. D levels under 20 ng/mL (29), and also had higher IL-6, TNF and ferritin levels (surrogate for inflammatory markers in COVID-19).

Zeolite (Clinoptilolite)

Zeolite is a complex mineral which forms in the contact of volcanic lava and water. This process can take thousands or even millions of years; scientists estimate that the first zeolite minerals formed over 300 million years ago. The name Zeolite encompasses over 240 different structures (or frameworks), of which 40+ occur in nature of which the most popular include: clinoptilolite, mordenite, analcime, chabazite, natrolite and stilbile.

During a clash of scalding lava and cold seawater, zeolite forms a unique cage-like structure and strong negative surface charge. Aluminum and silicon make the basis of this structure, but it often includes other elements such as oxygen, tin, zinc, and titanium. This is not to be confused with synthetic zeolites, such as Zeolite A that are artificially manufactured, and often not found in nature.

Zeolites strong negative charge allows it to bind and remove a wide range of toxins from the human body, drinking water, and waste materials. Its tiny cages and surface charge trap heavy metals, natural and chemical poisons, radioactive elements, microbes, metabolic products, and more [7, 8, 9, 10]. If you consume natural Clinoptilolite Zeolite it helps detox the body by pull these heavy metals out of the body’s tissues through an osmotic process, capture and excrete them through stool and urine.

Zeloite helps to neutralize acid in the bloodstream and increase alkalinity balancing the body’s pH to a more alkaline level of around 7.35. Heavy metals in the bloodstream typically increase acid levels which can have a negative impact on the immune system and brain function as well as harming the nervous system. Zeolite can help with the following:

  1. Reverse oxidative damage
  2. Maintain a healthy microbiome
  3. Kill bacteria and viruses
  4. Boost the levels of minerals and trace elements
  5. Repair skin lesions and stop bleeding
  6. and much much more (see below)

Zeolite Clinoptilolite is generally considered safe, but animal studies have indicated the potential for gut inflammation. Furthermore, the safety profile of zeolite is incomplete in pregnant women and children. As well some forms of synthetic Zeolite can be very dangerous.

Health Risks & Drug Interactions

  • IMPORTANT: Only certain types of natural zeolite (such as Zeolite Clinoptilolite) are suitable for human consumption. Others, such as erionite, may even be cancerous [95, 96].
  • Zeolite is Generally Recommended as Safe (GRAS) by the FDA
  • In clinical trials, zeolite caused no significant side effects [47, 64, 72, 12, 60].
  • If you are taking mediciations: Zeolites can bind with other substances and may neutralize stomach acid, causing your medications not to be properly absorbed or to be less effective.
  • If you are a transplant patient and/or taking drugs to suppress the immune system: Zeolites may cause rejection.
  • If you are on antibiotics or drugs that contain iron: Zeolites may decrease their effectiveness.
  • Safety reviews have shown no dangers related to zeolite consumption. However it should not be inhaled, as it can cause lung damage when inhaled. [89, 90].
  • Don’t inhale or get dust in eyes. To avoid dust fill spoon, plunge it into a cup of water and stir lightly.
  • One safety review also found no dangers related to zeolite consumption. That said, human and animal trials revealed it can cause lung inflammation and damage when inhaled [89, 90].
  • In one study, large amounts of zeolite in chicken feed caused gut inflammation. Rough-ground zeolite (large particles) reduced the number of blood cells in mice [93, 94].

Dosage & Supplement Facts

  • Zeolite Clinoptilolite (Natural Volcanic Mineral) is the most well researched brand for human consumption
  • Look for a purified liquid form (not a raw powder) that has been independently lab tested to ensure low contamination safety. Such as Pure Body Extra (clickable non-affiliate link)
  • Concerns about zeolite being contaminated and potential poisoning are unwarranted because natural zeolite has a high affinity for those toxins and keeps them trapped under all conditions [91, 92, 4].
  • Although powdered forms of Zeolite can have amazing reviews, unless the product is independently tested for contaminates you are taking a gamble on it’s effectiveness
  • <2 µm (micrograms) – although smaller forms theoretically have more surface area and detox capability, the crude manufacturing method can mean more broken charges and less effectiveness
  • <20 µm (micrograms) cheaper and still effective
  • Studies on Pubmed or in medical journals that specifiy zeolite for a specific treatment usually will list the exact form of Zeolite used.
  • Most containers come with a serving spoon. 1/2-1 teaspoon in a half a cup of water is adequate. Stir gently and drink all of it.
  • Take 2-3hrs before or after a meal. If you take Zeolite with food the heavy metals in the food can reduce it’s ability to detoxify existing heavy metals in your body. Personally I take it first thing in the morning and delay my breakfast for a few hours.
  • It is best if detox is done for a set period of time (not indefinately) and in the presence of a physician, dietician or nutritionist.
  • It is optimal to get a heavy metal test before and after the detox protocol to quantify the effectiveness of the Zeolite in detoxing heavy metals.
  • The problem with heavy metal detoxifiers like chlorella, is that their negative charge is much weaker. This can result in heavy metals being picked up, then dropped before they are excreted from the body. Zeolite has a much stronger charge, think of it like a cage that opens, lets in a toxin and then locks it inside until it exits the body.

Zeolite (Detox) Health Benefits

Although various different forms of Zeolite have numerous industrial uses such as in farming, agriculture and modern medicine…here we are going to focus on the properties which lend Zeolite to be a powerful detoxifier. Zeolite Clinoptilolite in particular is a natural volcanic mineral, which has a powerful negative charge that attracts and captures many positively charged heavy metals and toxins.

Some of the heavy metals it helps detox include: mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Zeolite also binds to & removes many chemicals like fluorine & chlorine, eliminating free radicals of all types, and it reverses acute chemical & allergic reactions by capturing histamines, all without removing vital nutrients from the body. This makes it a maximum detoxifier.

Please Note: Most of this section comes from an article from SelfDecode. All rights and credit belongs to them.

Natural Zeolite does it all in the gut without being absorbed, which makes it safe for humans. Although it is unhealthy if inhaled and can inhibit the absorbtion of some nutrients such as protein. Generally a detox is an temporary treatment, which one preforms for short periods, and not something you sustain daily for an indefinate amount of time. Therefore you shouldn’t be alarmed if it reduces absorbtion of some nutrients, for the short period of your detox…Coffee can inhibit iron absorbtion as well, but many people still drink it daily.

Heavy Metal Detox

In a clinical trial zeolite enhanced the elimination of aluminum, arsenic, lead, mercury, and other heavy metals. People who were administered liquid zeolite (30 drops a day) had significantly higher levels of these heavy metals in their urine samples. Lab analysis confirmed that zeolite wasn’t contaminated, attributing the results to heavy metal detox. There are many other studies that show Zeolite’s powerful heavy metal detox properties:

  • In studies on mice, zeolite enabled lead elimination and protected the brain from oxidative damage caused by this heavy metal. It reduced the levels of lead in organs by up to 91% [22, 23].
  • In rats, clinoptilolite stimulated aluminum detox and stopped it from reaching the blood [24].
  • Cadmium is another heavy metal that can cause anemia and impair different organs. In cadmium-poisoned pigs, zeolite prevented anemia and protected the liver. However, it didn’t impact the cadmium concentration in the kidneys [25].
  • Cell studies have confirmed the ability of zeolite to bind and remove heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, and mercury [26, 27, 28].

Reduce Brain Damage & Improve Mood

Brain cells are especially sensitive to heavy metal poisoning. Heavy metals can damage neurons and trigger anxiety, depression, anger, and attention problems [29, 30, 31].

Zeolite’s ability to detox lead, mercury, aluminum, and other heavy metals makes it a promising adjunct (complementary) therapy for the various mood disorders. However, no studies have investigated the impact of zeolite on mood yet [30, 21, 23, 24].

Reduce Blood Alcohol Levels

In 12 healthy drinkers, clinoptilolite (5 g) reduced blood levels of alcohol by up to 43%. It blocked alcohol absorption when combined with a drink [32].

  • In another clinical trial, 25 volunteers took zeolite (2.25 g – 4.5 g) the morning after the “night out.” It was too late for alcohol detox, but their hangover symptoms improved by 40-50% [33].

Reduces Body Odors and Protects Skin

Due to its detox and antibacterial properties, zeolite may benefit the skin in different ways. Many would-healing and personal care products have zeolite as their main ingredient.

  • In a clinical trial on 39 volunteers, deodorant spray with 10% silver-zeolite showed a strong and lasting (24 h) effect against armpit microbes, which produce unpleasant odors. A spray with a control substance failed to achieve this [78].
  • Zeolite forms a protective film on the skin, acting as a natural sunscreen. In one cell study, zeolite even reversed oxidative damage triggered by another sunscreen ingredient, titanium-dioxide [79].
  • In cell studies, zeolite eliminated viruses and volatile odors. It stopped the growth of the HSV-1 (Herpes simplex) virus, which causes cold sores [75, 58].

Helps Heal Wounds

Zeolite is generally considered safe, but animal studies have indicated the potential for gut inflammation. Furthermore, the safety profile of zeolite is incomplete in pregnant women and children.

  • Zeolite loaded with nitric oxide (NO) boosted wound healing in rats. It killed bacteria and fungi while protecting skin cells [66].
  • Patches with faujasite (natural zeolite) and copper showed similar effects. They also enhanced oxygen supply and skin regeneration [67, 68].
  • Another excellent combination for wound healing may be zeolite + silver. Patches with silver-zeolite can inhibit the growth of dangerous microbes, such as [69, 70, 71]:
    • P. aeruginosa, which can cause hospital-acquired infections
    • E. coli, known for causing ulcers and infecting wounds
    • S. aureus and MRSA, hard-to-treat strains of bacteria
    • Candida albicans

Removes Aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are a fungal toxin that contaminates some foods, causing liver damage [34], negatively impacting your health ie: Peanut butter if not prepared properly, can contain aflaoxins.

Zeolite Clinoptilolite was able to detox chickens from aflatoxin and protect their liver, bile duct, and kidneys. Immune system organs such as the thymus also suffered less damage [35].

  • Given to cows, zeolite lowered levels of aflatoxin in their milk, which is a major source of human poisoning. In test tubes, zeolite could remove aflatoxin from water (60%) and animal feed (80%) [36, 37, 38].
  • Zeolite protected chickens against another vicious fungal toxin, ochratoxin A. The animals ate more, gained weight, and recovered faster [39, 40].

Removes Radioactive Elements

Zeolite porous structure is a perfect trap for large radioactive elements. In rats and sheep, clinoptilolite blocked the absorption of radioactive cesium and reduced its concentration in animals’ organs [41, 42].

  • Clinoptilolite can bind radioactive atoms in nuclear waste as well [9].

Remove Nitrates and Prevent Metabolic Damage

Nitrates are toxins that can contaminate drinking water and disturb the health of humans and animals. In cows, zeolite reversed the metabolic damage caused by nitrates [43].

Remove Organophosphates

Organophosphates, similar to chemical agents produced during World War II originally developed in Germany in 19940. Organophosphates are a highly toxic chemical commonly used in insecticides sprayed on crops and plants and have thus become one of the most common mass produced chemicals assaulting human health today; responsible for a host of neurological disorders cropping up in modern society.

Organophosphates interfere with the nervous system of both insects and humans, by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase which sends chemical signals to halt nerve impulses at appropriate times this causes neurological overstimulation, which leads to nervous system dysfunction, causing seizures and death. They also distrupt the endocrine system reducing testosterone levels, causing an estrogen and testosterone (hormone) inbalance and severely impact male fertility.

Acute exposure symptoms include: nausea, twitching, headaches and trembling. Most people die because of an inability to breathe. The diaphragm goes into paralysis, convulsions overtake and death ensues. Long term exposure to these insecticides produces developmental effects including behavioral problems and receding cognitive function, most notably attention deficit and ADHD. In CDC led study they found organophosphates are linked to leukemia and lymphoma.

In two studies Clinoptilolite detoxed rats from organophosphates (nerve poisons) and quite frankly the fact that some pesticides belong to this group reveals the importance of zeolite detox properties [44, 45].

Repairs Gut Damage and “Leaky Gut”

Over 80% of your immune system is located in your gut, which also provides a pathway for nutrients to be absorbed into the bloodstream and become energy. “Leaky Gut” is a common disorder that occurs when inflammatory foods, stress, environmental toxins and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) damage the gut cell walls (intestinal lining), causing cracks and holes, which allows partially digested food, toxins, microbes and inflammatory molecules to leak from the guy into the blood stream.

This may trigger inflammation and changes in the gut flora (normal bacteria)and can lead to multiple digestive and other health problems,including conditions and symptoms like: irritable bowel syndrome, stomach pain, fatigue, bloating, food intolerances, depression and GERD and even autoimmune diseases [46]; in addition to many other conditions.

In a clinical trial of 52 endurance athletes, zeolite (1.85 g daily for 12 weeks) tightened the intestinal wall and prevented leaking. It also had a mild anti-inflammatory effect on the gut [47].

The buildup of urea, ammonia, and gases in the gut may lead to ulcerative colitis, IBS, and even colon cancer. High levels of urea in the blood (uremia) can be life-threatening. Zeolite binds both urea and ammonia, potentially offering protection against these gut toxins [50, 51, 52, 53, 54].

  • In mice with ulcerative colitis, a type of IBD, clinoptilolite was able to repair gut damage. It proved equally effective as a standard IBD drug (5-aminosalicylic acid). Tests verified that mice didn’t absorb zeolite particles into the bloodstream [48].
  • Zeolite showed similar action in a study on pigs with gut inflammation [49].

Improve Gut Microbiome

The positive impact of zeolite on gut bacteria contributes to the above benefits but also helps relieve diarrhea and improves overall health.

Cuban doctors have developed a drug for diarrhea (Enterex) made of clinoptilolite. They proved its safety and efficacy in 4 clinical trials and additional cell experiments. The ability of clinoptilolite to restore healthy gut flora played a crucial role in this effect [55].

  • When added to chicken feed, zeolite cut the number of harmful bacteria in their gut without disturbing the good bacteria. Chicken infected with Salmonella, a major cause of food poisonings, recovered faster and suffered less oxidative damage [56, 11, 57].
  • Another natural zeolite, chabazite, showed similar action in dogs. It even raised the number of probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains while fighting intestinal pathogens [10].
  • In cell studies, zeolite inhibited the growth of 2 viral strains (coxsackievirus and echovirus) that invade us through the gut [58].

Help Releive Acid Reflux and Stomach Ulcers

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common clinical problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. In GERD, acid reflux damages the esophagus, causing heartburn and other unpleasant symptoms [63].

  • In a clinical trial on 25 people with GERD, clinoptilolite (1.5 g daily for 2 weeks) relieved heartburn, pain, and discomfort by 45-55% [64].
  • The same protocol protected another 23 patients from stomach ulcers caused by a common NSAID drug, naproxen [64].

Improve Cholesterol and Blood Lipids

Cholesterol is a waxy type of fat or lipid that is used and produced in the liver by the body, but can also come from animal-based foods and only animal-based food. High Cholesterol is a huge problem that affects 102 million Americans over the age of 20. It can be caused by an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, and exacerbated (worsened) by smoking.

Your body needs healthy Cholesterol because it helps the cell membranes form layers that protect the contents of the cell, by determining what can and cannot enter or leave the cell. It is also necessary to help digest foods, make certain hormones, and produce Vitamin D.

Because Cholesterol cannot mix or dissolve in your blood, it needs the help of lipoproteins to move through your body. These lipoproteins include: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL = bad cholesterol) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL = good cholesterol); also Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) – particles in the blood which carry triglycerides.  Triglycerides and Cholesterol are both fatty substances, but Triglycerides are fats, and Cholesterol is not.

Too much cholesterol can cause issues; LDL can build up on arterial walls, making them narrower and can cause blockages atherosclerosis, and can lead to a condition called hypercholesterolemia. Plant based saturated fats are good for you, while trans fats found in fast foods are carcinogenic and toxic to the body. Allot of people think plant saturated fats are the same as animal based saturated fats, however your body handles plant based saturated fats much differently. For example I eat probably 200%-400% of the RDI for saturated fats, because I use organic coconut oil in practically all my meals. Yet I am thin and in very good physical shape.

In a clinical trial on 41 patients, micronized (fine-ground) zeolite lowered blood levels of the “bad” cholesterol (LDL) and blood lipids, while raising the “good” cholesterol (HDL). After 8 weeks (6-9 g daily), these values improved by 20-25% [72]. Although the lack of a control group makes this a low quality data.

Essentially natural Zeolite has been found to regulate cholesterol, by keeping the bad out and the good in, which is good for your heart and your arteries.

Mitigate Oxidative Damage

Zeolite’s ability to bind to toxins may confer a role in combating oxidative stress. In a clinical trial on 85 smokers, clinoptilolite (5.4 g daily for 1 month) potently enhanced antioxidant defense, similar to vitamin E [12].

Cigarette smoking poisons the entire body and increases the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the adverse effects of smoking [59].

  • Other types of natural zeolite showed comparable effects in 25 people: they boosted glutathione levels and protected lipids from oxidative damage [60].
  • In chickens and diabetic rats, zeolite boost antioxidants and protect organs from injury [61, 62]
    • Boosted antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase-SOD)
    • Increased total antioxidant capacity
    • Protected multiple organs from injury

Help Protect Liver from Damage

The liver is one of the biggest organs in the body. It is responsible for numerous significant metabolic functions. It transforms the nutrients in the foods you consume into substances that the body can use, stores these substances, and provides cells with them when necessary. The liver is also the “detox” organ and primary route through which a plethora of toxins and bodily wastes are filtered out of your body. You can have liver enzymes tested at a clinic to guage liver health.

Zeolite’s antioxidant activity and ability to bind toxins may give it a role in liver health. In rats with partially removed liver, clinoptilolite provided antioxidant support by boosting glutathione and protective enzymes. As a result, blood markers of oxidative damage dropped [76].

  • In a cell study, clinoptilolite reversed the liver-damaging effects of adriamycin, an anticancer drug. It suppressed inflammatory proteins (NF-κB, TNF-alpha, and IL-1B) and prevented cell death [77].

Reduce Allergies by Capturing Histamines and lowering Inflammation

Histamines, which are stored mainly in mast cells and basophils, are a prominent contributor to allergic disease; chemicals in your body that are responsible for a variety of functions. They are your personal security guard. When your body encounters an allergen, they get rid of them to protect you. Elevations in plasma or tissue histamine levels have been noted during anaphylaxis and experimental allergic responses of the skin, nose, and airways.

Histamines trigger the process that gets allergens off your skin or out of your body. Sneezing, redness, tearing up, swelling, or itching is often part of this process. This is how your body’s defense system works. It’s all normal and created for your health and safety [1, 2, 3].This is why anti-histamine medications and incredients are in nearly all anti-allergy formulations.

Air pollutants may trigger inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune issues. Since zeolite can bind to toxins and heavy metals, it might reduce the detrimental impact of pollution.

In animals and cells, zeolite has shown the potential to reduce skin inflammation and bind to histamine. In mice, a mixture of natural zeolites trapped histamine and other triggers of inflammation, decreasing skin swelling by 57% [80].

  • One cell study verified the ability of zeolite to bind histamine and thus relieve inflammation and allergic reactions [81].

Helps With Cancer – Shrinks Tumors and Retards Growth

There are a variety of different cancers, and it has become a growing problem across america and the world at large. Risk of cancer utilizes a combination of factors including: exposure to various forms of radiation, air pollution, toxins in food and water, comorbidities such as diabetes (insulin can feed cancer in diabetes), medications, toxic fast food, and various other toxins, as well as genetic predispositions to certain types of cancer can all contribute.

Ultimately your body is a marvel of biological technology, capable of healing itself from the plethora of toxins and pollutants that you are exposed to on a daily basis. However a vast majority of people are not only exposed to external pollutents, and unprecedented amounts of EMF and 5G radiation, but also consume garbage, pesticide laden and carcinogenic processed and fast foods, as well as toxic fluoridated and chlorine treated tap water. As your body lacks the necessarry nutrients to support a fully functional immune system, it cripples your bodies ability to heal itself from this onslaught of toxins..Essentially your body is being attacked from the inside and outside, and on top of that isn’t given the nutrition to heal…eventually your body just snaps and that’s when cancer can creep in. I think allot of people think cancer is just a “luck of the draw” disease, when in reality it took years of driving your body into the ground by treating it like a trash can, that lead to that cancer.

The ability of zeolite to bind radioactive elements, fungal toxins, and other cancer-causing substances also makes it a promising candidate for future cancer research. According to a review of studies on animals with different types of cancer, zeolite in both oral and skin treatments can [83, 84]: Shrink tumors and prevent their growth, Improve overall health and prolong the lifespan and Boost the effects of chemotherapy.

  1. Clinoptilolite cut the number of melanoma (skin cancer) metastases in mice and boosted their immune response [85].

Please Note: Zeolite supplements aren’t approved for cancer prevention or treatment [82]. Most studies are animal and in cell based studies; further study is warranted to support any anticancer effects Zerolite may have in humans.

A good deal of zeolite research lacks confirmation in humans. Clinical trials point to some potential benefits of zeolite, but the evidence is limited to a small number of patients. Some of these trials come with other notable caveats, such as [72, 83, 55, 88]: lack of control, unknown study details and author conflicts of interest.

If you or someone you know was diagnosed with cancer and you want to research treatments which your physician may not be aware of the best way is to go to PUBMED and in the search bar type “type of cancer + repurposed drugs” to see studies on all repurposed drugs. Or if you read somewhere about a certain supplement helping with cancer search “type of cancer + X supplement” i.e. “Zeolite + cervical cancer” and it will pull up all of the studies for that supplement on that specific type of cancer. Look for supplements or drugs that a) have low cytotoxicity and b) can enhance chemotherapy treatments or work alongside them as an adjunct therapy. Print them all off and bring them to your oncologist. If you aren’t outspoke enough to persist that such treatments be considered, then bring a family member with you who is to argue on your behalf.

Boosts Effects of Chemotherapy

Various different medicines, supplements and treatments can enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy, helping to expedite the destruction of cancer as well as recovery of the body after treatments. This can allow individuals to undergo lower chemotherapy dosages and undergo treatments for shorter periods of time.

  1. In cell studies, zeolite loaded with an anticancer drug (5-fluorouracil) was able to kill stomach and colon cancer cells. Adding zeolite enhanced the potency of this drug [86, 87].

Zeolite | List of Studies

Section pending additional research.

Pine Needle Tea

Pine needles have been used by indigenous populations around the world as both food and medicine for thousands of years. Fresh pine needles from appropriate trees have been used for centuries as sources of vitamin C and other phytochemicals that Native Americans used to treat respiratory infections and other ailments. Pine needle tea helps detox toxins through urine and sweat, preventing them from entering the blood stream.

Pine needle tea contains a variety of nutrients, powerful anti-oxidants and phytonutrients which make it a powerful immune booster and anti-viral treatment with DNA-protective properties. Pine needles contain many substances that appear to reduce platelet aggregation in the blood, potentially preventing blood clots that lead to strokes, heart attacks and pulmonary embolism diagnoses. Pine needle tea can contain:

  • Shikimic acid – Shikimic acid is the basis for Tamiflu, and it’s the molecule found in Chinese Medicine herb Star Anise, that is used to treat plagues and respiratory illness
  • Suramin – A large molecule that’s touted for various medicinal effects
  • Vitamin C (Anti-oxidant) – works as an antioxidant and an immune system booster. It improves the cardiovascular system as well as skin and eye health.
  • Vitamin A – an antioxidant beta-carotene which is important for vision (especially in low-light situations), hair and skin regeneration and the production of red blood cells. Pine needle tea has a pleasant smell and taste and is known to lessen fatigue and to improve mental clarity.
  • Vitamin E
  • Complex vitamin B
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Zinc
  • Potassium
  • Selenium
  • Sodium
  • Polyphenols such as terpenoids.

There are many individual nutrients and phytonutrients within Pine Needle Tea, which are often extracted individual for medicinal purposes. During the production of these refined extracts, certain properties can be destroyed by excessive heat, during distillation, seperation and further dissection of its many nutrient components.

However as Pine needle tea is a direct extract of the whole herb, it leaves many of its properties in tact, properties which may work synergistically in ways doctors don’t currently understand, which can together have properties or health benefits, the individual extracts do not.

Please Note: The majority of the information in this section comes from an article Is pine needle tea the answer to covid vaccine shedding / transmission? Learn about suramin, shikimic acid and how to make your own extracts by Natural News. All credit and rights belong to the original author(s).

Pine Needle Tea | Properties

“star anise is one of the vital ingredients of the Chinese medicinal herbs and is widely known for its antiviral effects. It is also the source of the precursor molecule, shikimic acid, which is used in the manufacture of oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), an antiviral medication for influenza A and influenza B. Besides, several other molecules with numerous biological benefits including the antiviral effects have been reported from the same plant. Except the antiviral potential, star anise possesses a number of other potentials such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, secretolytic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, sedative properties, expectorant and spasmolytic, and estrogenic effects

Star anise (Illicium verum): Chemical compounds, antiviral properties, and clinical relevance
  • Analgesic
  • Antibacterial – Warm pine needle tea, or a few drops of tincture added to a cup of warm water, can be used as a throat gargle to protect against and treat a sore throat. Drinking the tea helps fight bacterial infections in the mouth and respiratory tract.
  • Antifungal
  • Antioxidant – Found in the high levels of vitamin C and A and presenting as flavonoids, and their glycosides. High in proanthocyanidins.
  • Antiseptic – Pine needle tea is naturally antiseptic. It can be used to wash cuts and wounds to prevent infections
  • Antitumor
  • Antitussive
  • Antiviral – Pinene, which is the primary component of pine needles, inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Terpinene, camphene and limonene are antiviral. It has been further stated in this scientific paper that Beta-pinenene and limonenen reduced viral activity significantly.
  • Aromatic
  • Astringent
  • Decongestant
  • Detoxifying
  • Disinfectant
  • Diuretic
  • Expectorant
  • Immuno-modulating

These and other properties are what gives pine needle tea the numerous health benefits outlined below.

Some of the compounds in pine needle tea, such as Shikimic Acid work synergistically with Quercetin and Quinine, to enhance it’s anti-inflammatory, virucidal, anti-viral and immunomodulatory effects. Therefore you should consume pine needle tea along side quercetin and quinine if possible, in order to maximize it’s benefits. See studies list.

Pine Needle Tea | Health Benefits

Pine needle tea is one of the most potent anti-oxidants there is! The best benefits of pine needle tea can include:

  1. Maximize the immune system – Pine needles are rich in Vitamin C, which helps ward off colds, flu and other seasonal ailments.
  2. Improves vision – Pine needles are a good source of Vitamin A, C, E and other carotenoids that promote healthy eyesight and help prevent macular degeneration. Some forms of night blindness may also improve by increasing vitamin A intake, provided you don’t suffer from liver disease, malabsorption or alcoholism
  3. Supports Kidney Health – The tea is a mild diuretic, so it can have a beneficial effect on the kidneys
  4. Prevents respiratory infections – Pine needle tea has decongestive and disinfectant effects on the respiratory system, often reducing and soothing throat irritation and inflamed bronchi, helping to relieve excessive coughing. It acts as an expectorant, lightening the mucus and helping it to be coughed up.
  5. Stimulates circulation – Oil extracted from pine trees have a long history of being used topically for relieving pain and swelling due to arthritis and rheumatism. The volatile compounds in the oil improve blood circulation and reduce inflammation.
  6. Avoid chronic disease
  7. Increases red blood cells – Drinking pine needle tea can reportedly prevent and treat anemia. The active substances in the needles increase red blood cells besides improving blood circulation.
  8. Relieves nervous exhaustion and fatigue – Drinking a cup of Pine Needle Tea can be invigorating when you’re fatigued by hard work
  9. Increas cognitive performance
  10. Strengthen heart health
  11. Expedite healing
  12. Cancer prevention and treatment – Pine needle tea is high in antioxidants in the form of carotenoids and plant sterols. It also has potassium, iron calcium and phosphorous. Antioxidants reverse oxidative stress which can lead to cancers.
  13. Help with Stress and depression – Increasing your levels of certain vitamins and minerals, like the ones found in pine needle tea, may cause a slight elevation in mood and general well being (source).
  14. Pain relief
  15. Relieve sore muscles
  16. Kills Parasites
  17. Anti-Aging – The strong antioxidant action of the pine needle tea may help prevent premature aging due to UV radiation. The high vitamin C content helps in the production of collagen, the skin protein that helps keep the skin smooth and supple.
  18. Keeps skin vibrant and healthy – Pine needles have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin A and its compounds like carotenoids, flavanols and other bioactive chemicals are amazing healers of skin. Studies have shown that vitamin A can heal the skin (source) damage caused by steroidal drugs, immune suppression, diabetes or radiation. It has the added benefit of preventing infection while stimulating new skin growth. Use the tea as a face wash to remove excess oil and prevent acne. Thanks to the astringent elements in them, the tea pulls the skin together, reducing pore size and fine wrinkles.
  19. Promotes healthy hair – Pine needle tea can be used to treat itchy scalp and dandruff. Wash the hair frequently with diluted tea. Another alternative is pine needle tincture. Add 5-10 drops to your shampoo or conditioner and wash off after a few minutes. For better results, use ten drops in a cup of water as a final hair rinse.

Which Pine Tress Are Safe for Tea?

Pine trees are conifers. True pine trees are from the genus Pinus. But many conifers are used medicinally and are also referred to as pine trees. Firs, spruces and cedars are all conifers whose leaves can be used as tea.

While many pine trees can be used for pine needle tea, some can be toxic. Below is a list of the edible and non-edible (toxic) types:

Which species of pine are edible?

All of the below are edible, and have been used medicinally.

  1. Douglas fir pine tree
  2. White pine tree (personal favorite)
  3. Ponderosa
  4. Lodgepole
  5. Jeffery
  6. Western and Eastern White
  7. Sugar Pine

Which pine trees are toxic?

Those you want to avoid include:

  1. Lodgepole Pine
  2. Monterey Pine
  3. Ponderosa Pine
  4. Norfolk Pine (Australian Pine – Araucaria heterophylla)
  5. Loblolly Pine
  6. Common Juniper
  7. Yew Pine (technically not a pine tree – Podocarpus macrophyllus)

Foraging for pine needles in the wild

Is Nettle tea the same as pine needle tea?

No! Nettles are a leaft plant. They are not the same as pine needles.

Safety Precautions & Disclaimer

  • Not all pine trees are suitable, and some conifers – such as yew trees – are toxic to humans. Norfolk Island Pine and Ponderosa Pine trees are also beleived to cause spontaneous abortions and should likely be avoided.
  • Before making any tea or extract you should be aware of exactly what plant is researched obtain the medicinal properties and only use that strain.
  • Obtain herbs from a reputable store and brand to ensure purity and safety.
  • Pine needle tea may interact in unexpected ways with prescription medications, most of which are toxic all by themselves.
  • As a precaution, the first time you consume pine needle tea, drink half the cup first and wait for an hour to see if you have any allergy issues. If you do not develop any allergies, then it should be safe for consumption.

Ultimately we don’t know the full composition of various pine species, so we cannot in good conscience tell anyone to drink any tea made from pine needles. Should you choose to do so, exercise common sense and all necessary precaution, and work with a qualified naturopath to design an herbal strategy that’s compatible with your own biology and particular health goals.

If you substitute with Star Anise…It is very important you ensure that you order the Star Anise from a reliable brand, because while Chinese Star Anise is Healthy, japanese Star Anise is poisinous and very toxic; once dried they are indistinguishable from eachother.

How to Prepare Pine Needle Tea in a Kettle

In traditional chinese medicine they often extract the Shikimic Acid from Star Anise, however it can be replaced with ground fresh pine needles (green, not brown) and achieve a similar result. To support efficient extraction, you would want to grind the pine needles first, using a low-cost herb grinder.

2011 Korean study demonstrated using pine needles in tea was the best way to access the antioxidant benefits from pine needles. The study demonstrated that the hot water extract of pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins offer the highest levels of antioxidant benefits compared with chemical extract processes.There are other known benefits that pine needle tea and the tea made from other conifers share, which include:

Water acts as a solvent, and through heat and time, some phytochemicals in the pine needles are extracted into the water, making a pine needle tea. (This is how all tea is made.)

It is recommended you only drink as much pine needle tea as you can consume in a single sitting, because stored pine needle tea tends to lose much of it’s vitamin and nutrient content.

  1. Gather a handful of young, green needles from the end of a branch. You may collect older needles if you need more needles. You can also just order some online or at a local health food store.
    1. Be sure to collect needles from trees that are a good distance from a busy road, since the needles can retain chemicals from auto exhaust.
  2. Remove the brown, papery sheath from the needles by simply pulling it off. Then wash the needles thoroughly with water.
  3. Simply use a herb grinder to grind the pine needles into a powder (speeds up extraction of beneficial oils and nutrients)
  4. Boil the pine needle powder in water for 5 minutes (allow to steep another 5 minutes) to allow all the beneficial antioxidants and nutrients to be extracted from the pine needles and into the surrounding water
  5. Pour liquid through a coffee filter or sieve and discard the herb
  6. Drink the water with a small amount of Manuka honey (anti fungal) or organic erythritol to sweeten, and some lemon or other spices if preffered.

Optimal Shikimic Acid Extraction Recipe Using UltraSonic Machine

A study titled 17 Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Shikimic Acid in Pine Needles Based on Artificial Neural Network used neural networking research to optimize the extraction conditions in order to carry out a highly efficient extract from pine needles (if creating your own concentrated medicine). That study provided the following recipe for extraction optimization:

  • Use roughly 75% alcohol (such as vodka) and 25% water
  • Use an ultrasonic cleaning machine with a stainless steel vessel
  • Set the temperature to 65 degrees C.
  • Use 280 mL of extraction solution for every 10 grams of pine needles
  • Use a duration of 25 minutes for the ultrasonic extraction

This finished “tea” should be filtered through a coffee filter or other paper filter in order to remove large particles. The resulting liquid will contain shikimic acid, suramin, pigments and various terpenes, and will typically show some coloration and have a rather pungent taste.

This method is more for medical purposes and is overkill for most individuals. Hot water extraction is still the best option for most people to draw out the miracle Shikimic acid and make an effective pine needle tea for COVID-19 prevention, early treatment and spike protein detox.

Shikimic Acid Extraction Using Common Espresso Machine

A paper published in Science Direct titled Total quantification and extraction of shikimic acid from star anise (llicium verum) using solid-state NMR and cellulose-dissolving aqueous hydroxide solutions showed how to use a common espresso machine, taking advantage of the pressurized chamber, to preform an efficient heat + pressure extraction of Shikimic Acid from Star Anise. The paper was first published in Organic Letters in 2015 on the University of Oregon website (PDF).

One study showed that Shikimic Acid, one of the key compounds responsible at least in part for many of the beneficial properties of pine needle tea…when consumed, has a half life of about 1.3hrs & peaks at about 3hrs. This means within around 3 hours it essentially disappears.

“A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile
preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives.”

Total quantification and extraction of shikimic acid from star anise (llicium verum) using solid-state NMR and cellulose-dissolving aqueous hydroxide solutions

The study goes on to outline the purpose of the study, and why expresso machine extraction is a viable method:

“The study, which was carried out in Tasmania, Australia, deliberately sought a low-cost, low-tech method of extracting shikimic acid from common botanicals (pine needles):

[This method is a] low cost, rapid, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE)… the first example of the laboratory use of a simple espresso machine to facilitate the extraction of natural products (other than caffeine) from plant material.

We sought to specifically utilize relatively cheap, unsophisticated, and commercially available equipment to achieve the extraction of multigram quantities of star anise.[21] Consequently, given that the pump in an espresso machine enables the continuous flow of water at temperatures up to 96 °C and at pressures of typically 9 bar, we believed that such a system would be suitable for our purposes.”

Shikimic acid derivatives have also been shown to exhibit useful biological activity. Most notably, the well-known antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which acts as a viral neuraminidase inhibitor, is used to treat seasonal influenza and has been deployed during H1N1 influenza outbreaks.

Furthermore, fluorinated shikimate analogues have been shown to inhibit P. falciparum and have been tested as antimalarial drugs. In addition, shikimic acid derived (?)-zeylenone (3) displays anticancer, antiviral and antibiotic behavior, and triacetylshikimic acid exhibits anticoagulant and antithrombotic (inhibits clotting) activity.

Total quantification and extraction of shikimic acid from star anise (llicium verum) using solid-state NMR and cellulose-dissolving aqueous hydroxide solutions

Pine Needle Tea and COVID-19

Pine needle tea has the properties to make it great at detoxing the COVID-19 spike protein contagion and helps mitigate the risk from viral shedding by the COVID vaccinated; a phenomenon whereby vaccinated people spread the COVID-19 spike protein to other around them with skin contact being the primary vector in this case. Shikimic Acid and Suramin both contained in pine needle tea, have numerous studies showing their powerful anti-viral properties, and effectiveness against COVID-19 infection.

When to consume pine needle tea?

  1. If you are scheduled to be vaccinated – start taking the tea a week prior ( 3 cups a day minimum) and continue for a year or longer after getting the vaccine. We suggest you make it a lifestyle if possible, as we do not know how long the effects of the vaccine will be and also due to the extra benefits that come with this tea.
  2. If you’ve already taken the vaccine – start the pine needle tea regimen right away, a minimum of 3 cups a day for a year, and if possible make it a lifestyle regimen as we do not know how long the effects of the vaccine will be.
  3. If taking for prevention or early treatment of COVID-19 – consume a similar rigiment of 1-3 cups per day. If you are a front-line worker or in high risk situations, aim for close to 3 cups per day, especially on days where you’ll be in higher risk situations. You can pour it into a good quality thermos, and drinik it throughout the day during your work shift.

Shikimic Acid

Shikimic acid is a kind of “miracle” molecule that may be incredibly useful for halting blood clots and defending people from respiratory infections. Shikimic acid is a molecule found in Chinese Medicine herb Star Anise, that is used to treat plagues and respiratory illnessis and it’s also the basis for the Tamiflu medication. The Boston Herald published a story in 2010 that revealed researchers were studying extraction techniques to harvest shikimic acid from pine needles in order to provide this raw material to the pharmaceutical industry to manufacture anti-viral, anti-flu, anti-pandemic prescription medicines. The study found that Mason Pine Needles (@5.71% shikimic acid) provide about two-thirds the shikimic acid of Star Anise Herb (@8.95% shikimic acid):

“Researchers at the University of Maine at Orono say they’ve found a new and relatively easy way to extract shikimic acid — a key ingredient in the drug Tamiflu — from pine tree needles.

Shikimic acid can be removed from the needles of white pine, red pine and other conifer trees simply by boiling the needles in water, said chemistry professor Ray Fort Jr.

But the extracted acid could be valuable because Tamiflu is the world’s most widely used antiviral drug for treating swine flu, bird flu and seasonal influenza. The major source of shikimic acid now is the star anise, an unusual star-shaped fruit that grows on small trees native to China.”

Maine pine needles yield valuable Tamiflu material by Boston Herald

Shikimic Acid Containing Foods

  1. Star Anise (8.95% shikimic acid)- A Traditional Chinese medicine. It’s also available at amazon and at most health food stores. Comes in the form of hard star bits (like cinnamon sticks.) Simply grind into a powder (I use a magic bullet) and place in a teapot, allow water to boil, and let steep for a 5-10 minutes, then turn off, discard the grounds and drink.
  2. Masson pine needles (5.71% shikimic acid)
  3. Fennel – Organic oil is a quick method, a few drops on food or in juice. After you are done swish a bit of water in the cup to collect the remenants and drink.
  4. Schizandra Berry
  5. St. John’s Wort (Hypericum androsaemum): shikimic acid is found in abundance
  6. I found testing of 5 bean sprouts and all rich in shikimate (incl. red kidney bean, mung bean, and alfalfa). The highest content is during the sprouting process.
  7. Feverfew (leaves and flowers are rich in shikimate)
  8. Gingko Biloba Leaf 
  9. Giant Hyssop or Horsemint (Agastache urtifolia)
  10. LiquidAmbar (Sweet Gum tree) A tincture or tea of the spiky seed pods is rich in shikimate.
  11. Carrots and Carrot Juice
  12. Wheatgrass and Wheatgrass Juice (the young blades)

Shikimic Acid and COVID-19

Researchers of a study showed shikimic acid has anti-viral, anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties which made it effective in inhibiting viral replication, as well as to prevent clotting; properties are also relevant to COVID-19 and it’s spike protein:

“Shikimic acid derivatives have also been shown to exhibit useful biological activity. Most notably, the well-known antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which acts as a viral neuraminidase inhibitor, is used to treat seasonal influenza and has been deployed during H1N1 influenza outbreaks.

Furthermore, fluorinated shikimate analogues have been shown to inhibit P. falciparum and have been tested as antimalarial drugs. In addition, shikimic acid derived (?)-zeylenone (3) displays anticancer, antiviral and antibiotic behavior, and triacetylshikimic acid exhibits anticoagulant and antithrombotic (inhibits clotting) activity.”

Total quantification and extraction of shikimic acid from star anise (llicium verum) using solid-state NMR and cellulose-dissolving aqueous hydroxide solutions

In other words Shikimic is a potential candidate as an effective early treatment for COVID-19 infection by helping prevent viral replication and blood clotting; and a candidate for mitigating the damage of the spike protein, which is instructed by the mRNA in COVID-19 vaccines, to be manufactured in your bodies own cells.

List of Studies & Papers | Shikimic Acid

  1. Monopalmityloxy shikimic acid: enzymatic synthesis and anticoagulation activity evaluation “The subsequent high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the monopalmityloxy shikimic acids, as the only products, had been formed and the overall conversion rate was over 70%. The result showed that it had anti-thrombosis activity, could prolong the coagulating time and bleeding time in vivo, and lengthen the coagulating time in vitro. Compared with control group, the differences of the treatment group and aspirin group of rats are significant (P < 0.05) for prothrombin time and thrombin time, and very significant (P < 0.01) for activated partial thromboplastin time. It suggested that the product had the anticoagulation activity. The mechanism might be the co-action of the inhibition of intrinsic coagulation and the inhibition of extrinsic coagulation, and the inhibiting effect on intrinsic pathway is stronger than that on extrinsic pathway.”
  2. Anti-platelet and anti-thrombogenic effects of shikimic acid in sedentary population “The results suggest that SA (Shikimic Acid), an active metabolite of polyphenol-rich food intake, could play an important role in reducing platelet activation, aggregation related thrombus formation and biomarkers of thrombogenesis in sedentary individuals.”
  3. Immunomodulatory activity of shikimic acid and quercitin in comparison with oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in an in vitro model “SK alone is not able to modulate innate immunity in antiviral terms. However, the data show that the SK + QT combination, even at low doses, may be effective for the modulation of innate immunity.”
  4. Pandemism of swine flu and its prospective drug therapy “It can be concluded that shikimic acid has immense importance in drugs formulation for swine flu, which is a serious threat to the human population.”
  5. Antiviral activity of Illicium verum Hook. f. extracts against grouper iridovirus infection “All of the I. verum extracts displayed dose-dependent antiviral activities against grouper iridovirus. Based on the achieved per cent inhibition, IVAE, IVEE, DDBA and QCE were associated with the greatest antiviral activity (all > 90%). Together, our results indicate that I. verum extracts have effective antiviral properties, making it an excellent potential source material for the development of effective treatment for grouper iridovirus infection.”
  6. Virucidal Action Against Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus and Immunomodulatory Effects of Nanoformulations Consisting of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Natural Prodrugs – “Prodrugs alone or the MSNs displayed weaker antiviral effects as evidenced by virus titers and plaque formation compared to nanoformulations. The MSNs-NH2-SH and MSNs-NH2-SH-QR2 nanoformulations displayed a strong virucidal by inactivating the H5N1 virus. They induced also strong immunomodulatory effects: they inhibited cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) and nitric oxide production by approximately 50% for MSNs-NH2-SH-QR2 (containing both SH and QR). Remarkable anti-inflammatory effects were observed during in vivo tests in an acute carrageenan-induced rat model.” In other words formulations with MSNs + NH2 + SH (Shikimic Acid) + QR2 (Quinone Reductpse Type 2) had the most profound anti-inflammatory, virucidal, anti-viral and immunomodulatory effects.
  7. Star anise (Illicium verum): Chemical compounds, antiviral properties, and clinical relevance “star anise is one of the vital ingredients of the Chinese medicinal herbs and is widely known for its antiviral effects. It is also the source of the precursor molecule, shikimic acid, which is used in the manufacture of oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), an antiviral medication for influenza A and influenza B. Besides, several other molecules with numerous biological benefits including the antiviral effects have been reported from the same plant. Except the antiviral potential, star anise possesses a number of other potentials such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, secretolytic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, sedative properties, expectorant and spasmolytic, and estrogenic effects
  8. Pharmacokinetics of Shikimic Acid Following Intragastric and Intravenous Administrations in Rats “Shikimic acid, a critical starting material for the semi-total synthesis of oseltamivir to treat and prevent influenza, exerts many pharmacological effects…After intragastric (in the stomach – consumed orally) administration, the shikimic acid level peaked at about 3 h, and the material then disappeared mono-exponentially with a half-life of 1.3 h.
  9. Shikimic Acid Promotes Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Differentiation and Accelerates Remyelination in Mice “we found that SA (Shikimic Acid) significantly promoted the differentiation of cultured rat OPCs without affecting their proliferation and apoptosis. In mice, SA exerted therapeutic effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), such as alleviating clinical EAE scores, inhibiting inflammation, and reducing demyelination in the CNS. SA also promoted the differentiation of OPCs as well as their remyelination (regeneration of a nerve’s myelin sheath.) “we found that SA (Shikimic Acid) after lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Furthermore, we showed that the promotion effect of SA on OPC differentiation was associated with the up-regulation of phosphorylated mTOR. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SA could act as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of demyelinating diseases.


When suramin was introduced for the treatment of African sleeping sickness in 1922, it was one of the first anti-infective agents that had been developed in a medicinal chemistry program. Starting from the antitrypanosomal activity of the dye trypan blue, synthesized in 1904 by Paul Ehrlich, Bayer made a series of colorless and more potent derivatives. Molecule 205 was suramin (Fig. 1), synthesized by Oskar Dressel, Richard Kothe, and Bernhard Heymann in 1916.

Sleeping sickness (also known as human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]) was at the forefront of research at that time, not a neglected disease as it is today, and the development of suramin was a breakthrough for the emerging field of chemotherapy.

More on Suramin’s Origins

Suramin is Derived from Trypan Blue. Trypan blue is derived from toluidine, that is, any of several isomeric bases, C14H16N2, derived from toluene. Trypan blue is so-called because it can kill trypanosomes, the parasites that cause sleeping sickness. An analog of trypan blue, suramin, is used pharmacologically against trypanosomiasis. Trypan blue is also known as diamine blue and Niagara blue.

Trypan red and trypan blue were first synthesized by the German scientist Paul Ehrlich in 1904. Trypan Blue is a derivative of toluene which is a derivative of pine oil.The compound was first isolated in 1837 through a distillation of pine oil by the Polish chemist Filip Walter, who named it rétinnaphte.

Other Suramin Containing Foods

  1. Fennel – Organic oil is a quick method, a few drops on food or in juice. After you are done swish a bit of water in the cup to collect the remenants and drink.
  2. Star Anise – A Traditional Chinese medicine. It’s also available at amazon and at most health food stores. Comes in the form of hard star bits (like cinnamon sticks.) Simply grind into a powder (I use a magic bullet) and place in a teapot, allow water to boil, and let steep for a 5-10 minutes, then turn off, discard the grounds and drink.
  3. Dandelions – be careful with wild dandelions as most yards and cities spray toxic pecticides such as roundup on them. It is best to order organic dandelion in bulk, on amazon or at a health food store.

Suramin and COVID 19

Suramin found in Pine needle tea, in regards to COVID-19 has inhibitory effects against components of the coagulation cascade and against the inappropriate replication and modification of RNA and DNA. Excessive coagulation can cause blood clots, mini-clots, strokes, and unusually heavy menstrual cycles. In a document titled 100 Years of Suramin, they outline Suramin’s properties and how it helps against COVID-19 infection:

“Suramin further decreases the activities of a large number of enzymes involved in DNA and RNA synthesis and modification: DNA polymerases (103, 104), RNA polymerases (103, 105, 106), reverse transcriptase (18, 103), telomerase (67), and enzymes involved in winding/ unwinding of DNA (107, 108) are inhibited by suramin, as well as histone- and chromatin-modifying enzymes like chromobox proteins (109), methyltransferases (110), and sirtuin histone deacetylases (111)”

“Suramin also showed inhibitory effects against components of the coagulation cascade (71, 130)…  Excessive coagulation causes blood clots, mini-clots, strokes, and unusually heavy menstrual cycles.”

100 Years of Suramin –NIH

Please note: much of the information in this Suramin and COVID-19 section, came from an article by News Medical Life Sciences. All credit and rights and belong to the original authors.

List of Studies & Papers | Suramin and COVID 19

  1. Suramin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture by interfering with early steps of the replication cycle (PREPRINT) – “Here we demonstrate that the antiparasitic drug suramin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, protecting Vero E6 cells with an EC50 of ∼20 µM, which is well below the maximum attainable level in human serum. Suramin also decreased the viral load by 2-3 logs when Vero E6 cells or cells of a human lung epithelial cell line (Calu-3) were treated. Time of addition and plaque reduction assays showed that suramin acts on early steps of the replication cycle, possibly preventing entry of the virus. In a primary human airway epithelial cell culture model, suramin also inhibited the progression of infection.”
  2. Structural basis for inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase by suramin – “Here, we demonstrate that suramin is a direct and potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, an essential enzyme for the viral life cycle. The structure reveals that suramin binds to the active site of RdRp, blocking the binding of both strands of the template–primer RNA substrate and inhibiting the polymerase activity of the RdRp. Suramin derivatives also showed potent inhibition of RdRp activity and blocked viral replication in cell-based assays. Together, these results uncover the structural mechanism of a nonnucleotide inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp
  3. Identification and evaluation of the inhibitory effect of Prunella vulgaris extract on SARS-coronavirus 2 virus entry – “Overall, by using SARS-CoV-2 SP-pseudotyped HIV-1-based entry system, we provide strong evidence that NhPV and Suramin have anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and may be developed as a novel antiviral approach against SARS-CoV-2 infection”
  4. Structural basis for repurposing a 100-years-old drug suramin for treating COVID-19 – “Discovery and mechanism of suramin as potent SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase inhibitor and its repurposing for treating COVID-19.”
  5. 100 Years of Suramin – “in spite of the various confounders, a number of different drug-target interactions for suramin have been experimentally validated and are directly supported by crystal structures (Table 4).”
  6. The Repurposed Drugs Suramin and Quinacrine Cooperatively Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CL pro In Vitro “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that quinacrine (derivative of quinine) and suramin alone possessed a moderate or weak affinity with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro but suramin binding increased quinacrine interaction by around a factor of eight. Using docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we identified a possible binding mode and the amino acids involved in these interactions. Our results suggested that suramin, in combination with quinacrine, showed promising synergistic efficacy to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. We suppose that the identification of effective, synergistic drug combinations could lead to the design of better treatments for the COVID-19 disease and repurposable drug candidates offer fast therapeutic breakthroughs, mainly in a pandemic moment.”
  7. Identification of SARS-CoV-2 3CL Protease Inhibitors by a Quantitative High-Throughput Screening “The 3C-like protease (3CLpro), or main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a valid drug target as it is a specific viral enzyme and plays an essential role in viral replication. We performed a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of 10 755 compounds consisting of approved and investigational drugs, and bioactive compounds using a SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro assay. Twenty-three small molecule inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro have been identified with IC50s ranging from 0.26 to 28.85 μM. Walrycin B (IC50 = 0.26 μM), hydroxocobalamin (IC50 = 3.29 μM), suramin sodium (IC50 = 6.5 μM), Z-DEVD-FMK (IC50 = 6.81 μM), LLL-12 (IC50 = 9.84 μM), and Z-FA-FMK (IC50 = 11.39 μM) are the most potent 3CLpro inhibitors. The activity of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 viral infection was confirmed in 7 of 23 compounds using a SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect assay. The results demonstrated a set of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors that may have potential for further clinical evaluation as part of drug combination therapies to treating COVID-19 patients”
  8. Surface plasmon resonance approach to study drug interactions with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase highlights treatment potential of suramin “We monitored the effect of favipiravir, ribavirin, sofosbuvir triphosphate PSI-7409 and suramin on RdRp binding to RNA immobilized on the chip. Suramin precluded interaction of RdRp with RNA and even displaced RdRp from RNA.

Dandelion Root

Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) believed to have roots in Eurasia, are members of the Asteraceae family, otherwise known as the daisy family, which includes sunflowers, chrysanthemums, coneflowers and artichokes. You are likely familiar with these short yellow-flowered weeds in your garden and lawn.

What looks like one flower at the end of the stem of a dandelion is actually hundreds of tiny flowers that are growing together on one base. The toothed edges of the leaves were the inspiration for the French name “dent de lion” or lion’s tooth. At the end of its life, the dandelion flower produces a wispy ball of seeds that is easily carried on the slightest breeze.

Although considered by many to be a pesky weed, it is important to point out that dandelions have been prized for their medicinal and nutritional value since ancient times. Dandelions were used by ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks for their nutritional and medicinal properties and it’s likely they were purposely brought to the U.S. on the Mayflower. Dandelion can contain:

Nutrients in Dandelions

Many of the health benefits attributed to dandelion leaves, flowers and roots are likely the result of the high nutritional content of the plant. An analysis of dandelion extract shows appreciable concentrations of vitamins A, B complex, C and E.[31] Dandelions are rich with highly beneficial antioxidants that diminish free radical damage…

One cup of chopped dandelion leaves[32] has 24.7 calories, 535% of your daily recommended amount of vitamin K and 112% of vitamin A. The plant is also high in calcium, iron, manganese and choline. The plant is rich in phytochemicals, which may account for the description as a “nontoxic herb with exceptional biological activity.”[33] Dandelion can contain the following nutrients or compounds:

  • Bioflavonoids
  • Calcium
  • Carotenoids
  • Chlorophyll
  • Copper
  • Folic acid
  • Glycosides
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Potassium
  • Riboflavin
  • Silica
  • B Complex
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K
  • Inulin
  • Choline

Please note: much of the information in this Dandelion section, came from an article by Dr. mercola. All credit and rights and belongs to him.

Body Systems Supported by Dandelions

Dandelion is most established for it’s liver supporting properties; Regarded as a liver tonic in folk medicine, dandelions can clear obstructions, stimulate the liver, and maintain bile production and also the following human biological systems:

  • Biliary system
  • Bladder
  • Digestive system
  • Kidneys
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Spleen-pancreas
  • Stomach
  • Urinary system

Medical Uses for Dandelions

  • AIDS
  • Abscesses
  • Acne
  • Anemia
  • Arthritis
  • Boils
  • Breast tumors and female breast abscess
  • Cancer, including breast cancer and liver cancer
  • Cirrhosis
  • Colitis [S1]
    • [S1] “Dandelion root extract protects NCM460 colonic cells and relieves experimental mouse colitis “dandelion root extract can be an effective anti-colitis complex mixture and can provide a complementary alternative to currently available therapeutic intervention in UC.”
  • Constipation
  • Cramps
  • Diabetes
  • Edema
  • Fluid retention
  • Gallstones
  • Gout
  • Heartburn
  • Hepatitis
  • Herpes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Indigestion
  • Inflammation, including nephritis, cystitis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • Influenza [S1]
    • [S1] “transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP) RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose.”
  • Jaundice – Jaundice, a disorder of the liver wherein bile is overproduced, can be mitigated by dandelions. Treating jaundice entails three steps: curbing bile production, eliminating the excess bile from the body, and fighting the viral infection. Dandelions do all these by regulating bile production, encouraging urination, and by acting as a disinfectant and antioxidant.
  • Kidney stones
  • Liver disorders, including liver cancer
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Skin disorders, including eczema

Health Risks & Drug Interactions

  • If you are on blood thinners, taking medication to treat diabetes or have any other health condition where taking a diuretic could present a problem, you should not include the dandelion plant in your daily regimen.
  • Since dandelion herbs can induce allergic contact dermatitis, sensitive individuals should be cautious when using them.
  • Some studies have shown that one of the main components of dandelion causes kidney failure in sensitive people. In some cases, if you have kidney problems, you will need to pay attention to dandelion.
  • Patients undergoing potassium-sparing diuretic therapy are also advised against dandelions since they may aggravate potassium toxicity.
  • Dandelion tea may interact in unexpected ways with prescription medications, most of which are toxic all by themselves.
    • Dandelion is rich in vitamin K, which helps blood clot. Dandelion can interfere with blood thinners like warfarin.
  • As a precaution, the first time you consume dandelion tea, drink half the cup first and wait for an hour to see if you have any allergy issues. If you do not develop any allergies, then it should be safe for consumption.

Ways to Consume Dandelions

The optimal method to reap the benefits of dandelions or dandelion roots is to make a tea out of the roots and / or leaves, much like you would in the above guide on how to prepare Pine needle or star anise tea, however you can also scoop a few tablespoons into your favorite smoothie as well. Here are some of the ways to reap the health benefits of dandelions:

  1. Hot Dandelion Tea – drink 2-3 times per day between meals (not with meals).
  2. Smoothies
  3. Various cooked foods
  4. If dried and ground – taken with protein powder post-workout

Dandelion Tea Recipies

  • Dandelion has a slightly bitter taste.
  • Dandelion tea is known to relieve constipation and act as a laxative.
  • Dandelion tea does not contain caffeine.
  • Dandelion is not a sleep-inducing food.

Dandelion Flower Tea Recipe

8 Dandelion flowers
12 oz. Boiling water
Honey to taste

Dandelion Root Tea Recipe

1 tbsp. *roasted dandelion root
1/2 tsp. *minced, fresh ginger
1 cardamom seed
12 oz. Water
Honey to taste

Dandelion | Health Benefits

Dandelions Benefit Cardiovascular Health

A report from the American Heart Association in 2019[7] found 121.5 million U.S. adults were living with some form of cardiovascular disease. This is up 35.9 million people from the 85.6 million recorded three years earlier in the 2016 update.[8] The precipitous rise in number was in part the result of changes in the definition of high blood pressure published in 2017.[9]

Moving the indicators down just 10 points for systolic and diastolic blood pressure from 140/90 to 130/80 increased the number of people with cardiovascular disease to nearly 48% of the population.[10]

Yet a mere two years later, the 2021 report[11] found there were 126.9 million people 20 years old and older with cardiovascular disease. This comprised 49.2% of the overall population. In other words, while the change in guidelines resulted in an immediate and significant rise in number, the number of people with cardiovascular disease has only continued to grow.

High blood pressure is also known as the “silent killer” as there are often no symptoms until you have a heart attack or stroke. Many of the medications used to treat high blood pressure come with a long list of side effects and risks.[12] However, there are several natural strategies you can use to help support your cardiovascular system and consuming dandelions is one of them.

One type of medication used to support the cardiovascular system is diuretics. These are sometimes called water pills because they help the body release more salt and water into the urine. Side effects[13] from these medications can include muscle cramps, vomiting, electrolyte imbalances and a decrease in libido.

Dandelions also have strong diuretic activity,[14] which may be due in part to the high potassium content in the plant. The plant can also help the body detox waste products, including: drugs, metabolic waste and dietary toxins through the liver and kidneys.[15]

Additionally, a scientific review of the literature[16] revealed that extracts from the dandelion root demonstrated antiplatelet activity in vitro; helps to inhibit the adhesion of platelets on the endothelial walls and reduce the potential for plaque formation.

Dandelions Help with Weight-loss

Dandelions are a naturally good diet food due to their low calorie and nutrient dense properties. Dandelion tea can replace high-calorie drinks like milk and sports drinks or even enhance them.

Secondly dandelions reduce fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase; an enzyme secreted during digestion that aids in lipolysis. Inhibiting this enzyme can change the way the body absorbs fat, helping you lose weight. Although additional studies are warranted.

Additionally dandelion tea stimulates stomach secretions, which helps break down fat and cholestertol. In a study on rabbits, lipid and cholesterol levels improved when food was switched from a high-cholesterol diet to a diet containing extracts of dandelion leaves.

Promotes and Restores Liver Health and Function

Evidence also points to the hepatoprotective effects (prevent damage to the liver) of dandelion compounds. This is important in the face of the rising number of people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).17 This is a condition in which excess fat in the liver makes it more difficult for the liver to function and affects up to 25% of the U.S. population; especially those overweight or obese.

The excess fat build-up is not caused by alcohol but, rather, is associated with the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary practices.[18] One study[19] evaluated the effectiveness of using dandelion in patients with a history of high blood pressure and concurrent chronic liver injury. In addition to conventional drugs, the patients received a dandelion decoction 2x daily for 5 months.

The researchers evaluated blood pressure levels, liver enzymes and other parameters. The results demonstrated a mild reduction in blood pressure and additional hepatoprotective properties including enhancement of regenerative capabilities in the liver. During the trial, 93.8% of those taking the intervention had maintained blood pressure lower than 140/90.

A second animal study[20] evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of a dandelion root extract and compared that against treatment with silymarin. The animals were administered the interventions for seven days after chronic liver failure was induced. The researchers then measured liver and kidney parameters and oxidative stress markers.

The data demonstrated that the dandelion root extract helped to lower tests that demonstrated liver and kidney injury, as well as improve triglyceride levels and oxidative stress tests. The researchers concluded that the extract had a “hepatoprotective effect and reduces renal dysfunction. These effects were correlated with the antioxidant activity and systemic oxidative stress reduction.”[21]

Dandelions Help Manage Blood Sugar (antidiabetic)

Diabetes is a metabolic condition with insulin resistance as its hallmark symptom. According to the American Diabetes Association,[22] in 2018 there were 34.2 million Americans who had the condition. Of these, it was estimated that 7.3 million were undiagnosed. Each year, 1.5 million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with diabetes.

There are several health complications associated with diabetes, including: glaucoma, peripheral neuropathy, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure.[23] In addition to having an effect on your cardiovascular system and blood pressure, dandelion plants can also help manage blood sugar.

A 2021 study[24] published in Food Chemistry found flavonoids from the dandelion plant could inhibit pancreatic alpha amylase in a noncompetitive manner. Pancreatic alpha amylase is manufactured in the pancreas and used in the initial step of carbohydrate metabolism to produce glucose.[25] This function has made it a target in the research for treatments of Type 2 diabetes.

This is likely one of the mechanisms that make dandelion compounds antidiabetic. In some countries, dandelions are used for blood sugar control.[26] Much of the initial research into dandelions demonstrated promising results against Type 2 diabetes. However, further work, such as that published in Food Chemistry, is needed to determine the exact cellular impact and identify the active components within the plant.

During the fall months, the dandelion plant becomes higher in inulin.[27] This is a dietary fiber that acts as a prebiotic to nourish beneficial gut bacteria and may help control blood sugar.

In one study,[28] participants with prediabetes took an inulin supplement for 18 weeks. The group taking inulin lost weight and liver fat. Researchers believe by promoting weight loss and reducing hepatocellular and muscle fat, the inulin had a positive impact on fasting blood sugar measurements.

In an earlier study,[29] inulin supplementation also improved glycemic indices in women with Type 2 diabetes. The normalization of liver fat may help reduce insulin resistance and improve Type 2 diabetes.[30]

Dandelions Support a Healthy Immune System

Besides the numerous nutrients and compounds in dandelions that support both the immune system and your health in a plethora of ways…The flavenoids in dandelions also help to improve immune function.

According to studies dandelions also help to maintain a balance of red and white blood cells; adding to the immune supporting power of dandelions.

Dandelions are an Effective Oxidative Stress Inhibitor

In a 2010 study, researchers from the University of Annunzio Chieti-Pasaca in Italy compared extracts of the following: tumeric, dandelion, rosemary, and artichoke. The scientists found a strong positive effect ofthese herbs on the liver and gallbladder, and wanted to compare their anti-proliferation (spreading), antioxidant (combating free radical activity), and protective properties. Although Thermertic came out first place for antioxidant effects, dandelion was a close runner up.

The oxidative stress-reducing effects of dandelion extract was tested on rats with liver damage from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a chemical compound used in fire extinguishers and refrigerants which is highly toxic to the liver. Water-based dandelion extract, or dandelion tea, was observed to significantly reduce the amount of oxidative stress and inflammation present in the livers of the rats exposed to this toxin.

Promotes Skin Health

Studies show dandelion extracts can protect skin from UVB damage, and photoaging. In many home remedies dandelion is used ot treat skin conditions such as eczema and warts just to name a couple.

There is also some research that shows the acne fighting potential of dandelion sap.

Dandelions can Inhibit Cancer Growth

In a 2008 study published in The International Journal of Oncology. researchers analyzed the positive effects of dandelion leaf tea. The scientists found that dandelion leaf tea decreased breast cancer cells, but dandelion root tea did not. Researchers went on to test prostate cancer cells and found similar results. The scientists concluded that dandelion extract may be considered a “novel” anti-cancer agent.

There are also numerous other studies on the anti-cancer effects of dandelions and it’s derivatives:

  • The Journal of Ethnopharmacology published a study in January 2011 which tested the effects of dandelion root tea on leukemia cells. The study showed that dandelion root tea killed leukemia cells through a process called apoptosis. It is believed that dandelion root tea signals a “kill switch” on leukemia cell receptors. Researchers found it “interesting” that dandelion root tea did not transmit the same “kill switch” signal to healthy cells. These scientists also believed that dandelion should be considered a “novel” non-toxic anti-cancer agent.
  • The International Journal of Oncology published a 2011 report that a dietary supplement containing dandelion as one ingredient suppresses the growth of prostate cancer cells.
  • In yet another 2011 study performed with dandelion, dandelion root extract was clinically proven to induce apoptosis in human drug-resistant melanoma cells without poisoning or damaging healthy cells. Once again, tests proved that dandelion root extract should be considered a “novel” and non-toxic therapy for even drug-resistant forms of cancer.
Dandelions Have Been Showing to Induce Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells

One of the most common forms of cancer across America in young adults from 25-29 is chemoresistant (resists chemo treatment) melanoma (skin cancer). often in this condition, standard treatment involves the physical removal of cancerous skin cells, and therefore alternative therapies are important…

“The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Ontario’s University of Windsor demonstrated that dandelion root extracts can efficiently induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells without causing any forms of toxicity in the process.

In the initial study, the chemical reaction created by the dandelion extracts forced cancer cells to start disintegrating within the first 48 hours of treatment and at no time were all the other healthy cells affected. Researchers realized that continuous treatments with low-dose dandelion root extracts were effective in getting rid of most cancerous cells. The initial study turned out to be so positive that the research team was given additional grants in order to continue the project.”

“Although further research is only in its early stages, a 72-year-old gentleman by the name of John DiCarlo doesn’t need to be convinced about what dandelion tea can do for him. Mr. DiCarlo underwent aggressive cancer treatments and had been suffering for three years before the medical team decided to send him home to spend the little time they felt he had left with his family. Thankfully for him, the cancer clinic suggested that he try dandelion tea as a last resort. Within only four months, Mr. DiCarlo was in full remission and has stayed that way ever since.”

Source Natural News

Dandelions Promote Kidney Health

Kidneys are about the size of your fist, and there’s two of them shaped like a bean located in the lower back area. They serve primarily to eliminate toxins from the body through the urine as well as to regulate blood pressure, balance electrolytes and assist the liver with producing red blood cells. It goes without saying, that If the kidneys are stressed, toxins can begin to back up in the blood.

Dandelion greens for teas have been used in several cultures for many years as a mild, natural diuretic; It prevents the kidneys from building up waste products and the body’s tissues from retaining too much fluid. If urine is too dark, it usually means you require H2O hydration.

Dandelions Support Healthy Bones

Two of the nutrients Vitamin K and Calcium which are abundent in dandelions are both related to bone health.

  1. Vitamin K – helps with bone formation, and regulates calcium balance and bone metabolism. It also helps reduces fracture rates and risk of arterial calcification due to excessive Vitamin D supplementation.
  2. Calcium – intake plays an important role in preventing bone loss and fractures.
  3. Prebiotics – such as inolin (highes tin dandelions during fall) are known to increase calcium absorption.

Other Health Benefits of Dandelions

  • Pregnant women and mothers may turn to dandelions as these herbs can also serve as galactagogues, foods that promote lactation and make feeding easier.
  • Can help prevent anemia – according to some studies the iron content of dandelions can aid in helping with anemia.

Dandelions, Influenza and COVID 19

In the above portion on Dandelions, we show the numerous nutrients and compounds it contains, which make it capable of: supporting immune function, curing various diseases / disorders, and detoxing the body in a myriad of ways. Each of the individual compounds in dandelions has on it’s own powerful health benefits; many with studies to support those health benefits.

Unfortunately there hasn’t been much research preformed, into the beneficial effects of dandelions directly against COVID 19…however there are some studies on dandelions for prevention and treatment of Influenza. This is relevant because SARS-CoV-2 and the common cold are both coronaviruses.

In fact a study of blood samples taken before the COVID-19 pandemic showed that some people already had certain immune cells that recognize SARS-CoV-2; immune cells that also reacted with coronaviruses that cause common colds. The findings gave researchers a plausible hypothesis, that existing immune cells may help account for the wide range of symptoms experienced by people with COVID-19.

“We have now proven that, in some people, pre-existing T cell memory against common cold coronaviruses can cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2, down to the exact molecular structures…This could help explain why some people show milder symptoms of disease while others get severely sick.””


Although another researcher of the study, settle, was quick top point out that this immune memory, doesn’t directly translate to improved clinical outcomes and more severe infection; more research is required:

“It still remains to be addressed whether this immune memory reactivity influences clinical outcomes and translates into some degrees of protection from more severe disease…Having a strong T cell response, or a better T cell response may give you the opportunity to mount a much quicker and stronger response.”


Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

In one study titled Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion, researchers utilized antiviral assays, minigenome assay, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis to show that dandelion extracts had powerful anti-viral effects against influenza, while also showing no cytotoxicity or negative effects on other cells:

“Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP) RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose.”

Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

The study concluded that components within dandelions promote antiviral activity against influenza, both in reduction of viral growth of MDCK or A549 cells:

“The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.”

Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

In other words dandelion extracts posess “powerful anti-influenza virus properties” while showing virually no toxicity to other cells in the body, making it a safe and effective treatment for influenza, and also a likely candidate as an adjunct early-treatment for COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2.

Black Cumin Seed Oil (Nigella Sativa)

Nigella sativa is the scientific name for herb commonly known as black cumin. Seeds of this herb and oil extracted from them are widely used for treating a variety of ailments. Black cumin seed oil has been used so extensively across the Middle East and Asia, that it’s considered a panacea (cure all) for a plethora of health conditions. Black seed oil is also sometimes referred to as: Kalonji (Hindi), Black Cumin Seed and Habbat Al-Barakah (Arabic).

Nigella sativa has been used as traditional medicine for centuries, with a documented history of use dating back to the time of the Egyptian pharaohs. The oil from its seeds are effective against many diseases like cancer, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, asthma, kidney disease — also effective against cancer in blood system, lung, kidney, liver, prostate, breast, cervix & skin. Avicenna, the famous philosopher described cumin seeds as “Canon of Medicine” meaning that it provides the necessary energy to the body for curing diseases.

Nutrients in Nigella Sativa

N. Sativa contains several active constituents that have been identified, some of the more well-known being thymoquinone and nigellone; compounds shown to possess powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, and which play a direct role in regulating immune function. Black cumin seed is a good source of:

  • Calcium
  • iron
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Thiamin
  • Niacin
  • Phosphorous
  • Folic Acid

Health Properties of Nigella Sativa (Pharmacological Actions)

  • Treatment of both type 1 and 2 diabetes and associated ailments
  • Analgesic
  • Controlling allergic symptoms
  • Anti-cancer
  • Controlling fungal infections both superficial and systemic
  • Anti-microbial for a variety of viral, bacterial infections
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-helminthic
  • Immunomodulator
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Bronchodilator
  • Carminative
  • Diuretic
  • Hepato-protective
  • Gastro-protective
  • Renal-protective
  • Spasmolytic

Medical Uses for Nigella Sativa

  • Allergic Rhinitis – “A condition characterized by inflammation of the nasal sinuses secondary to seasonal or year-round allergen exposure, several human studies have found that black cumin seeds are useful for its treatment and prevention. Symptomatic improvement with black cumin seed included reductions in red, watery eyes, nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing and itching. This is likely because of black cumin’s antihistamine and anti-inflammatory actions.”
  • Asthma – “Supplementing asthma sufferers with black cumin seeds has been evaluated in multiple trials. Individuals taking black cumin seed extracts showed improvement in the clinical symptoms associated with asthma as well as in lung function tests. In addition, bronchodilator effects (keeping airways open) were also seen in some studies, leading to improved ability to breathe effortlessly. Other investigators noted reduced inflammation in the lungs as well as improvements in forced expiratory volume (FEV1), a measure of the ability to breathe out with ease.”
  • Inflammatory Conditions
  • High Cholesterol
    • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Various Cancers
  • Diabetes

Health Risks & Drug Interactions

Black seed and black seed oil have proven largely safe in small doses, but some people may experience a few side effects. Consider the following before taking black seed supplements:

  • Digestion – Some people have reported nausea and bloating after consuming black seed.
  • Pregnancy: One of the effects of the black cumin seed oil is its ability to stimulate smooth muscle contraction, including in the uterus, which can be very dangerous for pregnant women. As this can stimulate premature labor or increase the risk of miscarriage, pregnant women are not recommended to use this oil.
  • Blood Pressure: The blood pressure-lowering properties of black cumin seed oil can be beneficial for heart health unless you are already taking medication for hypertension. If you have existing heart conditions, it is best to speak with your doctor before adding this oil to your health regimen.
  • Because black seed can affect your metabolism, it may interfere with some prescription medications. Talk to your doctor if you are on any drugs that might be affected.
  • Allergic Reactions: Allergies to cumin or coriander are not uncommon, so the use of this oil for people allergic to those plants, or those with highly sensitive skin, may experience skin itchiness, redness or swelling in topical areas, as well as in the lips, tongue, gums, throat, and face. If you experience any of these symptoms, discontinue use immediately and seek medical attention.
    • As a precaution, the first time you use Black Cumin Seed Oil, use a small amount first and wait for an hour to see if you have any allergy issues. If you do not develop any allergies, then it should be safe for consumption.

Methods to Administer Black Sumin Seed Oil

Besides the most obviousmethod of consuming a 1/2-1tsp of N. Sativa 2-3 daily (with meals)… there are a variety of ways tou can reap the beenfits of Nigella Sativa:

  • Bath: Add 5 to 8 drops of essential black seed oil to the bath water. The only caution I have here is most cities use fluoride and chlorine in water, which is extremely toxic to the human body. If you don’t have a whole home filter, I don’t suggest this method of administration for N. Sativa.
  • Inhalation: To activate and stimulate the immune system, add 1 cup of black cumin seeds, or 5 drops of oil extract to 1 liter of hot water and inhale the steam. If you put a towel over your head and the bucket it helps to trap it in. If you have an oil diffuser such as a nebulizer, you can also use that.
  • Internally: Take 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of black cumin oil 2 to 3 times with meals. The preferred method for maximum effect. If you are going to administer N. Sativa through inhallation or bath, I suggest they agument your regular consumption of this miracle “super food” herb.

Health Benefits of Black Cumin Seed Oil

Black cumin seed possesses a broad range of healing effects, supporting body organs functions, systems, and biological pathways. The immunomodulatory effects of Nigella Sativa allows it to restore immune function which may be effected by various diseases or conditions and consequently makes it an effective treatment for a vast array of ailments.

Furthermore N. Sativa boasts a powerful antioxidant effect through the polyunsaturated fatty acids it contains, which further strengthen and revitalize the immune system, especially when used regularly as part of your daily regiment.

  • Powerful Anti-Inflammatory
  • Improves Lung Health
  • Enhances Immune Function
  • Helps Relieve Allergies
  • Improves Sleep
  • Helps Women with Menstration and Lactation
  • Aids with Digesion
  • Helps Lower Cholesterol and Hypertension
  • Regulates Blood Sugar and Helps with Diabetes
  • Helps Prevent and Treat Certain Cancers
  • Promotes Healthy Skin
  • Supports Healthy Hair
  • Prevents Obesity
  • Helps with COVID-19

Powerful Anti-Inflammatory

Numerous studies have shown that thymoquinone, one of the primary compounds in N. Sativa, can suppress the production of inflammatory mediators as well as oxidative stress. In immune cell studies, thymoquinone was found to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and its byproducts, thereby signifying a strong anti-inflammatory effect.

5-LOX is a key enzyme promoter of inflammation, and inhibition of 5-LOX is an primary target of many anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally the downstream effects of N. Sativa to reduce 5-LOX activity caused a reduction in the production of eicosanoids; additional chemical messengers of the inflammation response.

Other studies in white blood cells of the immune system demonstrated that administration of N. Sativa extracts reduced the production of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and byproducts, supporting the ability of black seed oil to provide comprehensive inflammation support across multiple key pathways.

The anti-inflammatory effects of N. Sativa have been confirmed in human clinical trials. In one study, participants suffering from joint health issues who supplemented with a N. Sativa formula for one month showed lowered levels of pro-inflammatory white blood cells, improved joint function, and a reduction of joint swelling and stiffness versus placebo.

Black Seed can also aid with brain inflammation, known as neuroinflammation, which can contribute to the development of neurological diseases or conditions such as Alzheimer’s and parkinson’s. Although research in this area is lacking.

Improves Lung Health

Research shows that N. Sativa has profound bronchodilation (relaxation of the smooth muscle tissue lining the airways of the lungs) effects in the lungs, ensuring clear, relaxed airways for easy breathing and helps relieve coughing.

Additionally, some studies have demonstrated that N. Sativa extracts can have a direct impact on normalizing inflammation in the lungs. In an animal study on allergic asthma, N. Sativa administration reduced lung inflammation and peripheral blood eosinophil count.

Enhances Immune Function

Nigella Sativa is extensively researched for i’t spowerfull immune system fortifying effects. N. Sativa extracts are to provide all emcompassing immune system fortification by promoting strong innate and adaptive immunity.

Black cumin seed oil has been used to prevent infections like MRSA and autoimmune diseases. It has a unique ability to protect the immune system without damaging other cells is highly unusual, which makes it very exciting for people with autoimmune conditions [7].

In a clinical study, the administration of black seed powder for 4 weeks led to significant improvements in immune function. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells significantly improved and an increase in natural killer cell function was also noted.

In another study researchers artificially suppressed the animals immunity, and administration of N.Sativa Oil was found to restore immune function to normal levels.

Additionally one study in animals whose immune systems were chemically compromised, found that black seed oil administration decreased antibody responses (Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin M) and the levels of complement C3, supporting an immune regulatory role of the extract.

Helps Relieve Allergies

Several studies have shown that black seed oil benefits allergies; researchers found that thymoquinone has anti-allergic properties through potent antihistamine effects, preventing its release from immune cell membranes while also serving as a muscle relaxant.

Histamine is a primary trigger for allergy symptoms. Nigellone interacts with immune cells to prevent release of histamine by working as a calcium channel blocker. As histamine release involves calcium channels, preventing calcium uptake into cells reduces histamine release, resulting in retardation of allergic reactions.

The muscle relaxant properties of N. Sativa lend it to be adept at bronchodilation and relief from acute and cchronic lung and sinus disorders; allowing airways to relax and stay open in lung conditions such as asthma. Much of this is attributed to one of it’s compounds, Thymoquinone; proven in least 6 separate studies, while a randomized controlled trial in individuals with asthma showed that even a single dose of black seed extract led to a short-term bronchodilation effect.

Improves Sleep

Some studies have shown N. Sativa can be used as a natural treatment for various sleep disorders, by ensuring an uninturrupted and restful sleep. In the article on netjournals they recommended the following:

  • Insomnia – consume 1tsp Black Seed Oil + 1tsp honey in warm milk, 1hr before going to bed.
  • Rub temples with the oil and turn off lights
  • Keep dinner light and avoid high sugar foods before bed; helps to rest teh pancrease which produces insulin

As a person who used to have difficulty falling asleep, I’ve also found the following to help immensly in improving the overall quality of my sleep and my life.

  1. Use high quality bluelight blockign glasses – during all screen use, especially before bed. if you can get an e ink tablet and use that for a few hours before bed.
  2. Use an eye cover during sleep – you’d be surprised how many sources of lights there are, including street lights which may shine through your window and effect your melatonin production.
  3. Consume Vitamin D, Magnesium and a probiotic before bed.
  4. A few drops of CBD or a balanced CBD + THC oil (if it’s legal where you are)- helped me immensly at the start, and seem to have helped calibrate my sleep better so I don’t have to take it every night.

Helps Women with Menstration and Lactation

N. Sativa seeds serve to regulate female hormones involved in menstration and lactation. In the article on netjournals they recommended the following:

  • Tea: Drink 1 cup of black cumin tea twice a day
  • To relax the uterus and abdominal muscles, add 5-8 drops of essential black cumin oil, to 1L (litre) of hot water and use it to warm abdominal compresses.

Aids with Digesion

The therapeutic effects of N. Sativa Seed oil on gastrointestinal conditions are well researched. Many studies show that the saponin melanthin, a compound found in N. Sativa. it can help with the following:

  • control gastritis
  • increases gastric mucin necessary for digestion
  • overcome gastric mucosal ischemia, colitis.
  • Help with gastric infections associated with bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

In the article on netjournals they recommended the following Recipe, to help alleviate digestive problems such as bloating, flatulence or constipation:

Tea recipe for Gastrointestinal Relief
Infuse teaspoon of crushed black cumin seed with 1/4 liter of hot water. Allow to draw for 10 minutes and strain. Drink 1 cup 2 to 3 times a day, if possible, unsweetened between meals.

Helps Lower Cholesterol and Hypertension

A combination of various components in Black cumin seed oil give it powerful cholesterol lowering properties; themajor presence of fatty acids, particularly myristic acid, oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids, can help balance cholesterol levels in the body and improve circulation. This can lower blood pressure, and reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, heart, and stroke. [10]

Additionally beta-sitosterol has studies showing it’s ability to lower cholesterol. n the article on netjournals they recommended the following to help lower Cholesterol:

“Take 2 to 3 black cumin seed capsules with Vitamin E every day for several weeks.”

Regulates Blood Sugar and Helps with Diabetes

The majority of conventional drugs for diabetes focus exclusively on insulin. In fact insulin feeds cancer and should be avoided through dietary changes first, if at all possible.

A study published Apr 2007, titled Antihyperglycemic activity of polyphenolic components of black/bitter cumin Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze seeds, showed that Black Cumin Seed Oil helps regulate blood sugar by activating several enzymes within the body (alpha-amylase, glucosidases) thus controlling diabetes.

“This study demonstrated that CA exerts antihyperglycemic effect by decreasing postprandial glucose in rats by modulating α- amylase and glucosidases (sucrase and maltase) activity and thus may be useful for the management of diabetes mellitus.”

Antihyperglycemic activity of polyphenolic components of black/bitter cumin Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze seeds

Like most treatments suggest, consuming 1/2-1tsp black cumin seed oil should be a sufficient dosage to guage blood sugar regulatory effects. If you have access to a blood glucose monitor you can check frequently during treatments to observe degree to which it helps regulate blood sugar levels, and adjust the dosage (increase or decrease) based on observed effects. During treatment and analysis of blood glucose levels, try to keep a ridgid diet schedule, as a controled variable, so you can accurately guage blood glucose regulatory effects.

Helps Prevent and Treat Certain Cancers

Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the potential anticancer benefits of black cumin seed oil. Researchers have found that it may be helpful against the following cancers:

  • Colon
  • Pancreatic
  • Fibrosarcoma
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Breast
  • Blood
  • Cervical

There are also many testimonies regarding Black Cumin Seed Oils being an effective treatment for other cancers, such as the 12 year old boy who cured his brain cancer with 9 capsules of black seed oil daily. 

The following Protocol is recommended for treatment of various cancers:

  • Stage 1 and II Cancer – 1tbsp of Black Seed Oil (results may not be the same with cheap oils) taken with 1tsp of Yemeni Sidr Honey or Manukah Honey 1/2 hour before breakfast. 
    • You must be on a strict cancer diet also, have no stress, minimum sun and mild exercise. Saffron infused black seed oil is also very beneficial. 
  • Stage III and IV Cancer – You must be on a strict vegan cancer diet, take the above protocol but also add in other strong supplements as the cancer as spread and should be attacked through multiple vectors.  I suggest Beta Glucan (Transfer is the best Brand), IP6 with Inosol, Vit D3 and C also.

Promotes Healthy Skin

The fatty acids and antioxidants found in black cumin seed oil promote healthy vibrant skin in a multitude of ways:

  1. It moisturizes the skin by providing a shield that locks in hydration
  2. Eliminates bacterial infections
  3. Prevents environmental stress
  4. Stimulates the growth of healthy new cells
  5. Improves the appearance of wrinkles and blemishes.

Supports Healthy Hair

For Generations Nigella Sativa Seed Oil has been utilized to promote hair growth and improve the appearance of dry or unhealthy skin, especially on the scalp and face. While topical application is better at preventing dandruff and skin infections, due to it’s renewing and antibacterial properties, consuming it enhances immune strength and raises antioxidant levels, which is also very beneficial to skin and scalp health; i’de recommend a bit of both…there are a variety of ways to include N. Sativa Seed Oil in your hair care regiment [11]:

  • Massage into scalp directly
  • Mix in with your favorite natural shampoo
  • Add 1/2tsp to a carrier oil like coconut oil and massage into scalp
  • Consumed to boost antioxident levels in the body

Prevents Obesity

The healthy fats found in black cumin seed oil such as linoleic and oleic acids help stimulate the metabolism, access usable energy more quickly, and reduce fat deposition. This can increase passive fat burning and boost energy levels, which helps you be more active and shave off even more pounds! [12]

Nigella Sativa and COVID-19

In a review titled Revisiting pharmacological potentials of Nigella sativa seed: A promising option for COVID-19 prevention and cure, in section 4 they go into detail on the protective role Nigella Sativa plays against COVID-19.

Mechanisms involved in pharmacological effects of N. sativa on COVID‐19. Black cumin seed or its active compounds activate immune cells, initiate antigen presentation system, and make balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The bioactive compounds of black cumin seed increase conversion of LC3II to LC3III, a marker of autophagy activation. Besides, black cumin decreases inflammation, oxidative stress (MDA) and increases anti‐inflammation, ant‐histamine responses, SOD, and GPx. Comorbodities increase the severity of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Black cumin may also be beneficial through improving comorbodity situation in SARS‐CoV‐2‐infected patients. CVD, cardiovascular disease; KLD, Kawasaki‐like diseases; PIMS, pediatric inflammatory multisystemic syndrome [Colour figure can be viewed at]

N. sativa extract contains several important active sites like thymoquinone (27.8%–57.0%), ρ‐simen (7.1%–15.5%), karvakrol (5.8%–11.6%), t‐anetol (0.25%–2.3%), 4‐terpineol (2.0%–6.6%), and longifoline (1.0%–8.0%) reported to exert antiviral, antitumor, and antimicrobial activities (Salem & Hossain, 2000b). A recent report is corroborated with the beneficial effects of N. sativa extracts to suppress SARS‐CoV‐2 virus load through the augmented induction of IL‐8 (Ulasli et al., 2014).

Black seed oil was shown to increase the number and action of CD4+ T cells and augmented levels of IFN‐γ thus overpowering on viral load in mice infected with cytomegalovirus (Forouzanfar, Bazzaz, & Hosseinzadeh, 2014). After administration of N. sativa oil, hepatitis C virus (HCV)‐infected patients improved health conditions such as total protein, red blood cell, and platelet count, decreased fasting blood glucose, and postprandial glucose in both diabetic and non‐diabetic HCV individuals (Barakat et al., 2013). Treatment with N. sativa for half a year was found to recover a 46‐year‐old HIV patient (Onifade et al., 2013). Furthermore, treating with a mixture of N. sativa and honey, a mid‐aged woman with HIV positive got rid of HIV and the number of CD4+ T cells was good enough to declare that she is recovered from HIV infection (Onifade et al., 2013). Altogether, it has been strongly suggested that black cumin seed could be a potential natural product to treat several incurable infectious diseases such as HIV but the efficiency of black cumin is yet to be determined.

In HIV‐infected patients, ROS may activate viral replication while oxidants are known to contribute to the loss of CD4 T cells by apoptosis. But antioxidants can suppress the apoptosis, which indicates a relation between antiviral and antioxidant actions (Peterhans, 1997). In a study with hepatitis C virus (HCV)‐infected individual surprisingly showed a decrease in viral load and an augmented total antioxidant activity, total protein and albumin, improved RBC and platelet counts when supplemented with black seed oil (Barakat et al., 2013). To investigate the antiviral effect of black seed oil, MCMV (murine cytomegalovirus) has been used as a model in a study where it was concluded that N. sativa oil can produce antiviral effect against MCMV infection by increasing level of serum of IFN‐γ, number of CD4+ helper T‐cells, suppressor function, and numbers of macrophages (Salem & Hossain, 2000b). The viral infection is known to be controlled by several components of immune system including natural killer cell (NK cells), and specific cells including CD4 and CD8 T‐cells (Salem & Hossain, 2000a) and it is proved that N. sativa oil can induce antiviral cellular response by rising CD4 cells (Salem & Hossain, 2000b). The antiviral effects of thymoquinone against avian influenza virus (H9N2) and murine cytomegalovirus infection models were confirmed. N. sativa seed fixed oil had stimulatory effects on CD4+ T‐lymphocytes in murine BALB/c cytomegalovirus model (Salem & Hossain, 2000b; Umar et al., 2016).

Coronavirus spike protein can utilize angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) like a receptor for entering into cells (Kuhn, Li, Choe, & Farzan, 2004). The α‐hederin gives better energy score when compared to chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and favipiravir. Preventive potentials of N. sativa seed oil against COVID is yet to be revealed. The molecular docking system discovered that N. sativa may inhibit COVID‐19 through its main compound nigellidine and α‐hederin. So further insights into in vivo and in vitro experiments with those active compounds are required (Salim & Noureddine, 2020).”

Nigella Sativa a Replacement for Ivermectin?

Multiple other studies have suggested that Nigella Sativa is a natural alternative to Ivermectin; banned in many places due to big pharma’s far reaching regulatory control. In fact in the Frontline Critical COVID-19 Care Alliance (FLCCC) i-MASK+ protocol (for early treatment of COVID-19), it lists Nigella Sativa as an “Ivermectin Alternative”.

“Nigella sativa (black seed) could be considered as a natural substitute that contains a number of bioactive components such as thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, and nigellimine”

Potential benefits of combination of Nigella sativa and Zn supplements to treat COVID-19
Nigella sativa for the treatment of COVID-19: An open-label randomized controlled clinical trial

In a study titled Nigella sativa for the treatment of COVID-19: An open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, researchers evaluated the efficacy of Black Cuman Seed Oil (Nigella Satica) treatment in patients with COVID-19. In total 173 patients with an average age of 36(±11) and 56% of which were male, who were admitted to King Abdulaziz university Hospital, with mild symptoms were analyzed.

The 86 patients in the Nigella Sativa Oil (NSO) group were administered “500 mg NSO (MARNYS® Cuminmar) twice daily for 10 days. Symptoms were daily monitored via telecommunication. The primary outcome focused on the percentage of patients who recovered (symptom-free for 3 days) within 14-days”

Results showed a nearly 2x increase in recovery rates for those in teh NSO group as well as a shorter recovery time-frame:

“The percentage of recovered patients in NSO group (54[62 %]) was significantly higher than that in the control group (31[36 %]; p = 0.001). The mean duration to recovery was also shorter for patients receiving NSO (10.7 ± 3.2 days) compared with the control group (12.3 ± 2.8 days); p = 0.001.”

Nigella sativa for the treatment of COVID-19: An open-label randomized controlled clinical trial

The study concluded that Nigella Sativa Oil drastically speed up recovery and is an effective treatment for COVID-19 infection:

“NSO supplementation was associated with faster recovery of symptoms than usual care alone for patients with mild COVID-19 infection. These potential therapeutic benefits require further exploration with placebo-controlled, double-blinded studies.”

Nigella sativa for the treatment of COVID-19: An open-label randomized controlled clinical trial

The effects of Nigella sativa (Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP genes family

In an article published on NIH Titled The effects of Nigella sativa (Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP genes family, analyzed (as the title states) three seperate compounds: Nigella Sativa, Anthemis Hyalina and Citrus Sinensis against COVID-19 infection.

The study found that all 3 compounds has a beneficial effect against COVID-19 infection by inhibiting viral replication, with Ah being the most pronounced:

“The results presented here suggest that treatment of cells with Ns, Ah or Cs extracts prior to infection with CoV decreases the replication of the virus. IL-8 secretion was increased at 24 h for Ns and Ah extract treatments but Cs treatment did not show a significant increase in IL-8 secretion at 24 h…

Following gene expression analysis the TRP genes with changed expression levels were identified as follows: TRPM6 and TRPA1 were the two genes that were down regulated for both 6 and 8 h time points in CoV infected and extract treated cells, TRPC4 gene was down regulated following Ns and Ah treatments for both 6 and 8 h time points, TRPM7 was down regulated only after Ns treatment for the two time points, TRPV4 gene was down regulated following Ah treatment for the two time points and TRPM8 was down regulated following Cs treatment for the two time points.

A general down regulation trend for TRP genes was observed in the CoV infected and extract treated cells. Together with the data showing that virus loads were decreased upon extract treatments we predicted that TRP genes might be involved in CoV survival inside cells.”

The study was quick to point out that, as of the date of publishing this paper, there was very little literature “tying TRP genes to viral survival” and with the undetectable viral loads following Ah administration…researchers weren’t entirely sure what that mechanism of action was; if the cause was TRPV4 gene effects was possible, but still mere speculation.

“Undetectable levels of the virus after Ah treatment can mean a specific factor being involved following that treatment and this factor can be the TRPV4 gene, whose expression went down only in the case of Ah treatment for both 6 and 8 h time points. Currently there is no literature tying TRP genes to viral survival.

The reason for decreased virus loads following extract treatments is not known at this point.

Virtual screening of phytoconstituents from miracle herb nigella sativa targeting nucleocapsid protein and papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19 treatment

In a study titled Virtual screening of phytoconstituents from miracle herb nigella sativa targeting nucleocapsid protein and papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19 treatment, researchers used virtual screening methods to analyze potential mechanisms of action of N. Sativa against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Researchers found that N. Sativa showed strong “binding affinity against two viral proteins viz. N-terminal RNA binding domain (NRBD; PDB ID: 6M3M) of nucleocapsid protein and papain-like protease (PL-PRO; PDB ID: 6W9C) of SARS-CoV-2″

As these two viral proteins are key to viral replication, host cell immune evasion and viral assembly; the study concluded that N.Sativa is a potential “therapeutic agent” against COVID-19 infection through those vectors:

“Interestingly, PL-PRO and NRBD are key proteins in viral replication, host cell immune evasion and viral assembly. Thus, NRBD and PL-PRO have the potential to serve as therapeutic targets for N. sativa phytoconstituents in drug discovery process against COVID-19.”

List of Studies | Nigella Sativa and COVID-19

  1. Nigella sativa for the treatment of COVID-19: An open-label randomized controlled clinical trial “NSO supplementation was associated with faster recovery of symptoms than usual care alone for patients with mild COVID-19 infection. These potential therapeutic benefits require further exploration with placebo-controlled, double-blinded studies.”
  2. Effect of the Phytochemical Agents against the SARS-CoV and Some of them Selected for Application to COVID-19: A Mini-ReviewNigella sativa has potent anti-SARS-CoV activity and it might be a useful source for developing novel antiviral therapies for coronavirus.”
  3. Possible therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and its thymoquinone on COVID-19 “The current literature review showed that N. sativa and TQ reduced the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12, while enhancing IFN-γ. Nigella sativa and TQ increased the serum levels of IgG1 and IgG2a, and improved pulmonary function tests in restrictive respiratory disorders…TQ might have beneficial effects on the treatment or control of COVID-19 due to antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well as bronchodilatory (relaxes bronchial muscles) effects.”
  4. Revisiting pharmacological potentials of Nigella sativa seed: A promising option for COVID-19 prevention and cure (Review)
  5. The effects of Nigella sativa (Ns), Anthemis hyalina (Ah) and Citrus sinensis (Cs) extracts on the replication of coronavirus and the expression of TRP genes family “The virus load decreased when any of the Ah, Ns or Cs extracts was added to the CoV infected cells with Ah extract treatment leading to undetectable virus load for both 6 and 8 hpi. Although all the extract treatments had an effect on IL-8 secretion, TRP gene expression and virus load after CoV infection”
  6. Virtual screening of phytoconstituents from miracle herb nigella sativa targeting nucleocapsid protein and papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19 treatment “PL-PRO and NRBD are key proteins in viral replication, host cell immune evasion and viral assembly. Thus, NRBD and PL-PRO have the potential to serve as therapeutic targets for N. sativa phytoconstituents in drug discovery process against COVID-19.”

Manuka Honey

Since ancient times, honey has been used for its healing properties. Manuka Honey is a special type of honey produced with pollen from the Manuka bush, found exclusively in New Zealand.

In a 1981 study by the Honey Research Unit at University of Waikato, it was discovered that a few strains of Manuka honey are very stable and possess exceptional natural properties unlike other varieties of honey.

Manuka Honey and UMF Rating

  • The UMF Honey Association grants UMF licenses to Manuka honey manufacturers who meet their rigorous standards. The UMF license is what makes genuine Manuka honey.
  • The higher the content, the more powerful anti-inflammatory effects it has. The most powerful Manuka honeys exceed 200mg/kg of leptosperin.
  • UMF tracks key signature markers: LeptosperinMethyglyoxal, and DHA as well as HMF.
  • Every manufacturer is required to hold a valid UMF license to obtain a UMF trademark on the label. Look for “UMF Certified” or “UMF Certificate” on the side of a Manuka honey jar.
  • The higher the content, the more powerful anti-inflammatory effects it has. The most powerful Manuka honeys exceed 200mg/kg of leptosperin.
    • Leptosperin is chemical compound found in Manuka honey nectar that has anti-inflammatory properties.
    • Methyglyoxal, also known as MGO is responsible for antibacterial effects. The level of MGO determines the UMF grade.
    • Any honeys from UMF15 to UMF20 are Antibacterial Grade and useful for skin therapy. UMF20 to UMF25 is a Superior Antibacterial Grade, for very bad wounds.

Manuka Honey and MGO Grading System

The MGO grading system has been developed by Professor Thomas Henle for MGO Manuka honey in 2008. It is quite different from Unique Manuka Factor. MGO stands for methylglyoxal which is a chemical that naturally occurs in Manuka honey.

The higher the MGO content, the higher the antibacterial activity. This makes Manuka honey perfect for soothing conditions such eczema or psoriasis when applied topically. More Info.

Nutrients (Vitamins, Minerals, Anti-Oxidants & Compounds) in Manuka Honey

  • Vitamin B6
  • Thiamin B1
  • Riboflavin B2
  • Niacin B3
  • Pantothenic Acid B5
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Leptosperi
  • Methyglyoxal

Health Properties of Manuka Honey (Pharmacological Actions)

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Antibacterial
  • Antihypertensive
  • Hypoglycemic

Medical Uses for Manuka Honey

  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Gastric Ulcers [S1, S2]
  • Leg Ulcers [S1]
  • Oral Infections & Diseases [S1]
    • Periodontal Disease [S1]
  • Wounds and Wound Infections [S1, S2, S3, S4]
  • Burn Healing
  • Actinic Keratosis [S1]
  • Blepharitis [S1]
  • Typhoid Fever [S1]
  • Meibomian Gland Dysfunction
  • Atopic Eczematous Dermatitis [S1]
  • Various Cancers [S1]
    • Breast Cancer [S1]
  • Immunodeficiency Virus – Type 1 (HIV) [S1]
  • Influenza [S1]
  • and much much more…

More Info

Health Risks & Drug Interactions

  • Diabetes – Honey has a high content of naturally occurring sugar. It is wise to keep track of blood sugar levels as they might fluctuate while consuming Manuka honey.
  • People allergic to bee pollen or honey – If you have a runny nose, rashes, itchy hives or watery eyes, there’s a good chance you are allergic to honey.
  • Infants – Most pediatricians do not recommend giving honey to babies under one year of age. Doing so might result in botulism.

Methods to Administer Manuka Honey

  • Consume with Star Anise, or Pine Needle Tea
  • Replace refined sugars by using Manuka Honey Instead
  • Great in both Hot and Cold tea drinks

Health Benefits of Manuka Honey

Please Note: Much of the information on this section comes from an article by Full credit to the original authors.

Helps with Digestion and IBS

Irritable bowel Syndrome effects up to 30% of people around the world, and can be triggered by a variety of factors such as poor riet, stress, lack of sleep and gut micobiome changes.

Studies have shown that variable doses of Manuka honey reduce inflammation of the colon in groups treated for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Irritable Bowel Disease (IBD).

study conducted at Chandigarh Institute showed a significant decrease in inflammation in the colon.

Helps Treat Wounds & Burns

Manuka is especially well researched for it’s anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties which help to decrease inflammation in wounds and infections when applied topically. However consuming Manuka Honey has a positive impact on wound healing:

With a pH of 3.2-4.5, Manuka Honey has an acidity that promotes the release of oxygen into the blood and helps promote wound healing. An acidic environment also reduces the protease which inhibits the process of wound healing.

  • In extensive lab testing, it has been found that it effectively inhibits bacterial pathogens such MRSA.
  • It Disrupts the formation of new bacteria such as Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species.
  • The naturally occuring sugar in honey helps daw water from damaged tissues (osmosis) and helps treat wounds; a process which greatly reduces swelling and activates the lymph nodes. The bacteria dry out as the sugar pulls out the water so that they cannot multiply.

Reduces Acne and Eczema

The anti-inflammatory properties of Manuka honey help with acne, while it’s strong anti-microbial properties help with killing bacteria…these along with it’s “superfood” nutrient profile, have made it become a popular treatment for acne.

And even if you simply want to add some honey to a lotion recipe, or water it down…The research is clear that Manuka Honey preserves its properties even when diluted in water.


  1. Dilute a drop of Manuka honey in water
  2. Spread the mixture on your face
  3. Gently massage the honey over your face for a minute
  4. Rinse your face and dry with a soft towel


Mix the following items into a paste:

  • Manuka honey
  • oats
  • lemon juice

Apply the paste to your face and leave it on for up to 10 minutes.

Prevents Gastric Ulcers

H. pylori is the main type of bacteria repsponsible for causing gastriculcers. It forms sores on the lining of the stomach which in turn causes stomach pain, nausea and bloating.

Again Manuka Honey’s antiseptic and anti-fungal properties lend it to be effective at reducing this bacteria and gastric ulcers that form the sores on the stomach lining; confirmed by significant research over the last 5 years.

Typical dosage for gastric ulcer relief is 1tbsp daily of UMF Manuka Honey.

Provides Sore Throat Relief

Honey + lime has been a long-standing home remedy to relieve a sore throat associated with a cold or the flu.

A study titled Streptococcus mutans in saliva of normal subjects and neck and head irradiated cancer subjects after consumption of honey published in early 2000, showed that honey had a significant impact on reducting streptococcus mutans in infected individuals.

I recommend using honey along side your pine needle tea, or star anise tea and with your Black Cumin Seed Oil. In fact if you replace sugar in most cases with Honey, it will be much healthier for you.

Star Anise Mint Tea + Manuka (1 Cup)

  • 1 tsp Star Anise (Organic)
  • 1/2 tsp Peppermind Tea Leaves (Organic)
  • 1 Cup Water
  • 1tsp Manuka Honey
  • Ground Cinnamon
  1. Grind up 1tsp Star Anise until powdered
  2. Add 1/2 teaspoon ground peppermint tea leaves
  3. Place strainer and pour boiling hot water over. Let steep for 10 mins with lid on.
  4. Add 1/2-1tsp Manuka Honey
  5. Sprinkly ground cinnamon on top and drink

Black Cumin Jeera Hot Water

  • 1 tsp Cumin seeds (Organic)
  • 1 cup water
  • 1 tsp Manuka Honey (optional)
  • 1 wedge lemon (optional)
  • Take a pan & add 1 tsp of Whole cumin seeds. (Crush if preferred, which helps in extracting a better flavor.)
  • Once slightly roasted (takes about 2 minutes), add 1 cup water and let boil for 10 mins.
  • Strain the Cumin water using a metal strainer into a cup.
  • Add Honey or Lemon depending on your preferences

When I have a cold I usually do a flush with Colloidal Silver a couple times daily (depending on how bad my congestion is): I gargle some in my mouth for 30 seconds, spray it in my nose and even using an eye dropper to place 3-4 drops in my eyes. This will help with reducing bacteria, eye and sinus infections among other things. it is also safe to drink and very beneficial for the body.

Helps Treat Cancer

In a study titled Intravenous Administration of Manuka Honey Inhibits Tumor Growth and Improves Host Survival When Used in Combination with Chemotherapy in a Melanoma Mouse Model published in early 2013. Researchers found that Manuka Honey helped to significantly reduce cancer growth, especially when combined with paclitaxel; highlighting it as a possible adjunct therapy for cancer and chemotherapty-induced toxicity.

Treatment with manuka honey alone resulted in about 33% inhibition of tumor growth, which correlated with histologically observable increase in tumor apoptosis. Although better control of tumor growth was observed in animals treated with paclitaxel alone or in combination with manuka honey (61% inhibition), a dramatic improvement in host survival was seen in the co-treatment group. This highlights a potentially novel role for manuka honey in alleviating chemotherapy-induced toxicity.

Intravenous Administration of Manuka Honey Inhibits Tumor Growth and Improves Host Survival When Used in Combination with Chemotherapy in a Melanoma Mouse Model

Because in this study the Manuka honey was administered intravenously…we don’t know if consuming orally it will have the same effect on Cancer. However considering the low cost, and extremely low risk of Manuka Honey, combined with the danger of consuming processed sugars for individuals with Cancer…replacing sugar with Manuka Honey, for individuals with Cancer, seems like a no brainer.

Further evidence is needed to fully understand how Manuka honey can be used to kill off cancer.

Helps With Sleep

The naturally occuring sugar in honey releases insulin into the blood which allows tryptophan to enter the brain and induces sleepiness.

  • Tryptophan is a type of amino acid that is active in the brain and is converted into niacin, an essential B vitamin.
  • Niacin plays a crucial role in the creation of serotonin.
  • Serotonin is a neurotransmitter necessary to produce melatonin which puts you to sleep.

Improves Dental Health

It’s estimated that in 2019 over 50% of Americans have some form of periodontal disease. It might seem counterintuitive, but Manuka honey does not cause tooth dcay, and instead promotes healthy gums. In a study published in 2014 titled Antibacterial potential of Manuka honey against three oral bacteria in vitro Researchers found that Manuka honey above UMF 10+ has an antibacterial activity (medical grade manuka) that is highly effective at killing harmful oral bacteria such as P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans:

“Manuka honey above an NPA value of 15 showed a significantly higher antibacterial effect compared to the other honeys tested. All Manuka honey preparations were more effective in inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, rather than S. mutans. In conclusion, the study showed an NPA dose-dependent antibacterial efficacy of Manuka honey.”

Antibacterial potential of Manuka honey against three oral bacteria in vitro

In our testing, we have reported a reduction in plaque and gingivitis when supplementing with just one tablespoon of medical grade honey.

Manuka Honey and COVID-19

Prospects of honey in fighting against COVID-19: pharmacological insights and therapeutic promises

In a review titled Prospects of honey in fighting against COVID-19: pharmacological insights and therapeutic promises published Dec 2021. Researchers summarized the potential benefits of honey and it’s compounds in “the context of antimicrobial activities, some chronic diseases and the host immune system”:

“The SARS-CoV-2 infected individual having a cytokine storm might be tackled with honey’s antioxidant property along with increased IFN-γ level [2, 48, 95]. Various micronutrients have been found to be essential for immunocompetence especially plant-derived polyphenols are very important to reduce the release of inflammatory cytokines [68]. In a case study, it has been observed that a polyphenol-rich environment effectively stimulated the activation of the local immune system and the mechanisms involved in tissue repair. As honey is rich in these bioactive compounds, it can be concluded that honey might have a possible role in alleviating the pain of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients [96]. Therefore, it is hypothesized that honey might be beneficial for SARS-CoV-2 infected patients through several major mechanisms such as direct virucidal properties, regulating/boosting host immune signaling pathways, and curing and/or improving comorbid conditions (Figures 1 and ​and2). Besides, based on the previous results of several studies, honey may act as a preventive agent against hyper-inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2.”

Prospects of honey in fighting against COVID-19: pharmacological insights and therapeutic promises – Possible roles of honey against SARS-CoV-2 infection

In other words various macronutrients present in honey support immune function and immunocompetance, polyphenols help inhibit release of inflammatory cytokines, and create a “polyphenol-rich” encironment which stimulates immune activation and function. While several other mechanisms including virucidal properties, regulation of immune signaling pathways, and improvement of certain comobid conditions can make honey in general very effective against COVID-19 infection.

Propolis, Bee Honey, and Their Components Protect against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review of In Silico, In Vitro, and Clinical Studies

In another Review titled Propolis, Bee Honey, and Their Components Protect against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review of In Silico, In Vitro, and Clinical Studies published Reb 2021. Researchers found that in both simulations and in vivo, honey (specifically propolis extracts) could help inhibit non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, and largely help inhibit viral-host interactions which could leark to the infamous cytokine storm and viral replication:

Similar to the potent antiviral drug remdesivir, rutin, propolis ethanolic extract, and propolis liposomes inhibited non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and these compounds along with naringin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells. Propolis extracts delivered by nanocarriers exhibit better antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 than ethanolic extracts”

Propolis, Bee Honey, and Their Components Protect against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review of In Silico, In Vitro, and Clinical Studies

The study showed that even in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 there was a marked effect associated with a honey and nigella sativa therapy against: viral clearance, symptom recovery, mortality and hospital discharge. They concluded that these powerfully observed anti-viral effects make honey an effective adjunct (used along side) treatment:

“In line, hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving green Brazilian propolis or a combination of honey and Nigella sativa exhibited earlier viral clearance, symptom recovery, discharge from the hospital as well as less mortality than counterparts receiving standard care alone. Thus, the use of bee products as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 may produce beneficial effects”

Propolis, Bee Honey, and Their Components Protect against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review of In Silico, In Vitro, and Clinical Studies

There are also many studies with honey on other viruses such as Influenza, then there are of it’s effects against COVID-19. The results are still relevant as they highlight the anti-viral properties of Manuka Honey…so we’ll include some of those studies here.

Shilajit & Fulvic Acid

Shilajit and fulvic acid are natural substances that come from the earths soil; known as “humic” substances. Ancient Indians and other cultures, revered it as a powerful medicine for its medicinal properties to treat a variety of malady’s including: gastrointestinal disorders, kidney stones, joint pain, arthritis and more.

Some of the oldest records of Shilajit stem back approximately 5000 years to India and the Himalayan Mountains, which has led many to believe that this is where Shilajit originates from. Shilajit icomes in the form factor of a resin, that can be collected from rocks and soil, but the majority comes from areas where mining has been going on for centuries. To date the best quality Shilajit comes from the Himalayan mountains and the Altai mountains, both of which are speculated to be between 300 and 500 million years old! You can find out more about the history of Shilajit Here

“the building blocks present in the metabolic machinery of human beings are, in the great majority of cases, exactly the same as the building blocks contained in the metabolic machinery of other organisms of extremely different types.”

– Roger J. Williams

Fulvic Acid

Fulvic acid is the primary active ingredient in Shilajit, but Fulvic Acid is also it’s own product derviced form various humic clay mineral products other than Shaljit. Fulvic Acid is an organic acid can be found in plant and animal cells and is also found naturally where water has had contact with a mineral-rich rock such as limestone or granite. Fulvic acids are produced when enzymes break down proteins into amino acids and fulvic acid molecules are released with other substances dissolved within them.

Fulvic acid is composed of sugars, amino acids, enzymes, trace minerals and vitamins. It provides the building blocks for life with essential nutrients including calcium, phosphorous, magnesium and potassium. Together the trace minerals, and fulvic acid content of Shilajit work synergistically to enhance absorption and provideunique chemical interactions, provide positive health benefits exclusive to Shilajit.

How is Fulvic Acid Different


Shilajit is a thick, sticky tar-like substance often found among the rocks of the Himalayan Mountains. It also contains many minerals as well Humic acids (including Fulvic Acid).

  • Not produced in Canada or US
  • Lack a standardization and therefore Fulvic acid content can vary greatly
  • Due to not being produced in the US and therefore a lack of standardization, means some Shaljit products have been found to contain high levels of toxins and heavy metals including lead, mercury and arsenic.

Fulvic Acid

Fulvic Acid Supplements are derived from Humic clay mineral products; result of the natural decomposition of nutrient rich prehistoric vegetation. Often Sourced from mountaneous regions such as Wasatch Mountains in Central Utah, and contain more than 70 plant source minerals and often around 12.5% Humic/Fulvic acid.

  • Some brands are produced in America
  • Standardized manufacturing and extraction methods provide more precise Fulvic Acid content.
  • A quality supplement will be highly refined and have no chance of containing any toxic compounds.

Shilajit Nutrient and Mineral Content

There are other compounds similar to Shilahjit, such as “Mumie” formed from fossilized animal droppings or other organic matter at high altitudes due to natural processess over millions of years. Shilajit differes from these because itis made from organic carbon and contains an impressive list of elements that are organic in origin [9], as opposed to being entirely composed of inorganic materials.

The other portion of Shilajit that is not made of humic and fulvic acids consists of beneficial plant alkaloids, organic acids, resins, waxes and many other natural compounds with beneficial health effects.

Because the composition of Shilajit varies from region to region, an exact list of compounds is difficult. Shilajit does not have a standard chemical formula due also to these variations, as well as it’s Fulvic Acid content, which doesn’t have an exact chemical formula.

The combination of fulvic and humic acids, trace minerals, plant resins, polyphenols, organic acids and C60-DBP complexes makes Mumie a truly complicated product – something only nature could have created over millions of years.

Shaljit & Fulvic Acid | List of Trace Minerals, Nutrients & Compounds

Statistics reveal mineral deficiency has become a worldwide epidemic with many populations on the brink of a subclinical deficiency, including in elements such as: magnesium, potassium, selenium, zinc, chromium and more. This weakens your immune system and results in poorer responses to viral infections such as influenza and COVID-19 (to name a few).


Shilajit contains more than 80 trace minerals, together with fulvic acid, making them much easier for us to absorb.

  • electrolytes
  • fatty acids
  • silica (which boosts collagen synthesis)
  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • Minerals
    • Albumen
    • Alumina
    • organic acids (cysteine, lysine, alanine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, serine, tyronine, threonine, proline, tyrosine, methionine, leucine, valine)
    • Barium
    • Benzoic and fatty acids
    • Beryllium
    • Bismuth
    • Calcium
    • Carbon-60
    • Chromium
    • Cobalt
    • Copper
    • Gallium
    • Gold
    • Hippuric acid
    • Humic and fulvic acids
    • Hydro-oxidized primary and secondary amide peptide bonds
    • Iron
    • Lead
    • Magnesium
    • Manganese
    • Molybdenum
    • Nickel
    • Phenolic steroids and pregnane steroids
    • Phospholipids
    • Phosphoric anhydride
    • Potassium
    • Resins and plant remains
    • Silicate groups of silicon dioxide
    • Silver
    • Small amounts of strontium oxide
    • Sodium
    • Sulfur
    • Tin
    • Titanium
    • Vanadium
    • Wax
    • Zinc

Please Note: The toxic compounds such as heavy metals are filtered our during the purification process. That’s why it’s important you order Shilajit from a well known and reliable brand; to ensure effective filtration of toxins. If you are more comfortable you can get Fulvic acid, a much more refined product.

Fulvic Acid

Fulvic acid and other humic acids are yellow-brown substances found in natural materials. They contain a plethora of nutrients and active compounds that can help improve health.

  • electrolytes
  • fatty acids
  • silica (which boosts collagen synthesis)
  • prebiotics
  • probiotics
  • Main Minerals
    • Zinc
    • Magnesium
    • Iron
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Manganese
    • Molybdenum
    • Copper
    • Sodium
  • Trace Minerals
    • Beryllium
    • Boron
    • Cadmium
    • Carbon
    • Caesium
    • Chromium
    • Erbium
    • Fluorine
    • Gallium
    • Gold
    • Holmium
    • Iodine
    • Lead
    • Lutetium
    • Nickel
    • Osmium
    • Phosphorus
    • Rhenium
    • Rubidium
    • Samarium
    • Selenium
    • Silver
    • Strontium
    • Tantalum
    • Terbium
    • Tin
    • Tungsten
    • Ytterbium
    • Antimony
    • Barium
    • Bismuth
    • Bromine
    • Cerium
    • Chlorine
    • Aluminium
    • ArsenicCobalt
    • Dysprosium
    • Europium
    • Gadolinium
    • Germanium
    • Hafnium
    • Indium
    • Iridium
    • Lanthanum
    • Lithium
    • Mercury
    • Neodymium
    • Niobium
    • Palladium
    • Platinum
    • Praseodymium
    • Rhodium
    • Ruthenium
    • Scandium
    • Silicon
    • Sulphur
    • Tellurium
    • Thallium
    • Titanium
    • Vanadium,
    • Yttrium
    • Zirconium

Wait even in Fulvic Acid, Lead and Mercury are in trace amounts? That doesn’t seem very healthy!?!
Did you know that an apple contains 3-5 mg of aluminum and trace amounts of lead, arsenic and mercury? Micro or trace minerals are essential for good health if they come from an organic or plant source. In contrast, if they come from an inorganic or metallic source, such as heavy metals, they are toxic. It’s all about organic vs inorganic minerals…Colloidal minerals are non-toxic because of their plant or vegetable source and electrical charge. Research shows that organic plant-derived trace minerals will actually replace the heavy metals deposited in the body. The heavy metals are then flushed from the body. Essentially Organically sourced minerals are the only type of mineral that cannot go toxic. If the body does not use organically bound minerals in around 8 hours they pass out in the urine. Read more info

Shaljit | Fulvic Vs. Humic Acids

The other type of Shilajit known as “Mumie” is made up of humic acids, a portion of which are fulvic acids; by-products of microbial action in soil and water. These are largely reponsible for flourishing plant life on earth.

While humic acids are large particles, fulvic acids are much smaller, and both have different properties. Both of them chelate nutrients together, yet humic acids tend to bind to polyphenols and other organic acids while fulvic acids chelate fulvic minerals, forming complex bonds.

Many of the health benefits of Humic acids are largely responsible to it’s polyphenol (plant synthesized anti-oxidant compounds) content. However it also binds to quinones, which can create small doses of dangerous free radicles.

Essentially fulvic acids binds to and convert inorganic minerals into their organic form, a transformation which permits minerals to become readily aborbable by plants, and animals.

Undernormal conditions we would obtain these acids from fresh produce, however as a consequence of modern farming practrices including: pesticides, chemical water treatment, etc), nutrient content of plants is effected, and we therefore lack these in our diet. Shilajit contains them in perfect proportions for optimal nutrition and well-being.

Health Properties of Shilajit (Pharmacological Actions)

Medical Uses for Shilajit

  • Low testosterone
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Chronic Fatigue
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle loss
  • Obesity
  • Inflammation
  • Anemia – Due to it’s naturally high iron content
  • Bad heart health
  • Low levels of fertility

Health Risks & Drug Interactions


  • Raw Shilajit can contain compounds that are toxic and it must be processed (purified) in order to avoid poisoning or other forms of health damage from these toxic compounds such as heavy metals. Because Sajit products are made outside the US, most are improperly purified and contain these toxic compounds after processing.
  • Because Shilajit is really rich in iron (which is why it’s used to treat anemia) you shouldn’t take it if you already have more iron in your blood than normal or if you are taking multi-vitamins or consuming foods already high in iron. Overdosing on Iron could lead to: overdose, bloody vomit, diarrhea, loss of consciousness, loss of skin color and shock.
  • Shilajit may dangerously lower blood pressure in some individuals that may cause fainting, dizziness or falls. This can be particularly unsafe for certain individuals with any type of suspected or diagnosed heart conditions.
  • Shilajit may adversely affect diabetics. Type 2 diabetics with low blood sugar may feel faint, weak, or unbalanced due to the effects of Shilajit in their system.
  • Some people may be naturally allergic to Shilajit and should administer it with caution.

Fulvic Acid

  • While any natural remedy should always be cleared with your personal Doctor, Fulvic acid has no know side effects. In fact, WebMD states that they currently have no information for any Fulvic acid interactions.
  • Fulvic Acid Supplements are safe for almost everybody, regardless of medical condition or other medications or supplements you are taking. However this is NOT the case with Shilajit.
  • A US made Fulvic Acid Supplment derviced from US Humate ensures the most potent and purified product.
  • If you have a disorder that results in abnormal immune functions, such as an autoimmune disease like multiple sclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis, you shouldn’t take fulvic acid without being monitored since it can activate the immune system and complicate your condition
  • Because not enough is known about how it affects hormones in pregnant women – stay away from using fulvic acid supplements if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • You may experience fulvic acid detox symptoms when beginning supplementation, due to the detoxification effects. While this may not apply to everyone, it’s possible to experience temporary diarrhea, cramps, fatigue, headaches or nausea.

Dosage and Supplement Facts

  • Fulvic acid supplements that are made for human consumption can be found in several forms, including liquid form and also as a solid, mineral substance.
  • There are various brands available today, but shilajit is one ancient supplement used in Ayurvedic medicine that has a lot of research supporting its benefits. It contains 85 minerals in ionic form, as well as triterpenes, humic acid and high amounts of absorbable fulvic acid.
  • Some experts believe that the highest-quality fulvic acid supplements come from New Mexico, as well as parts of Russia, Canada and  China. Ideally purchase a product that is GMO-free, has no added chemicals or artificial ingredients, is free of pesticides, and is certified organic .
  • There’s some evincethat fulvic acid is more bioavailable when taken in liquid form as opposed to solid or chunk form. Solid fulvic acid must be broken down by the digestive system before the nutrients can be utilized by the cells.
  • Fulvic Acid and Fulvic minerals are usually interchangeable terms, “fulvic minerals” usually contains Fulvic Acid (FA)
  • Most liquid products come in extract form and require using about 12 drops at a time with 16–20 ounces of filtered water. In solid form, one or two tablespoons is combined with one to two cups of water.When taken as a liquid, it seems to enter cells more easily.
  • Fulvic acid is best takin with or near meals as it counteracts and detoxifies contaminants — such as pesticides, chemicals, etc., found in foods that are not organic. As well it helps boost nutrients in your food , by increasing their absorption.
    • You can take it a half hour before eating or two hours after eating to improve detox abilities. If using medications, take fulvic two hours after or before.
  • It’s recommended that you use fulvic acid with filtered water (not tap water). Liquid products might be sterilized to a lesser degree, which preserves beneficial heat and chemical-sensitive nutritional components, so avoid supplements that say “sterile humic acids.”
    • Chlorine interacts with humic acids in a negative way, so always use filtered water if possible.
    • Diluting fulvic acid is also safer than taking it alone in high amounts.

Health Benefits of Shilajit

When ingested, the fulvic and humic components appear to kick start our mineral metabolism[1] as well as promoting cell wall permeability, allowing all of the nutrients inside Shilajit to easily get through to where they need to go.

The organic acids, plant nutrients and minerals support all parts of the cell with everything they need to restore themselves, facilitating heightened energy output, efficient protein and enzyme production as well as bolstering our body’s natural defense and healing mechanisms.

  • improves digestion and gut health
  • balances your immune system
  • provides anti-aging effects
  • aids in detoxification from heavy metals to pesticides
  • eliminates free radicals through its powerful antioxidant activity and strong ionic charge
  • helps mineral deficiencies and improves anemic conditions
  • improves your skin, hair and nails
  • mitigates cognitive decline by eliminating neural plaque and Tau fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s diseas
  • Fulvic acid also acts as a potent electrolyte. Being one of the strongest electrolytes on the planet, it may help to restore cells chemical balance through the delivery of important minerals like sodium, potassium and magnesium.

Health Benefits of Fulvic Acid the “Nutrient Booster”

Fulvic Acid is an active chemical compounds that enhances the bioavailability / absorption and positive health effects of other nutrients, Including: microbiota/probiotics, phytonutrients, fatty acids and minerals. Many consider it to be the ultimate “nutrient booster,” and it helps counteract free radical damage.

  1. Supports Gut Microbiome
  2. Helps Boost Digestion & Nutrient Absorption
  3. Supports Brain Health & Helps Prevent Alzheimers
  4. Helps Detoxify the Body
  5. Lowers Free Radical Damage and Inflammation
  6. Helps Treat Cancer
  7. Improves Energy Levels and Lowers Pain
  8. Repairs and Protects the Skin

What makes Fulvic Acid (FA) so beneficial to plant life, soil fertilization, water/agriculture supplementation and is also what makes it so beneficial to humans…FA improves a plants ability to grow due to how it increases permeability of plant membranes that absorb nutrients from the ground.

Please Note: Most of the information in this section on Fulvic Acid comes from an article by Dr. Axe. All credit to the original author.

Supports Gut Microbiome

Over 70% of immune function takes place in the gut – GALT. We need a strong digestive system to build immunity, help control hormone production, regulate appetite, reduce stress response and much more. Fulvic acids compounds support a healthy Gut “microbiome”, which is essential to proper immune function, by nourishing the digestive tract, specifically the “good bacteria” helping them to repopulate and form a healthy gut microbiome.

In conditions like leaky gut, an unhealthy level of gut permeability, particles can escape through the gut lining and enter the blood stream, causing inflammation and autoimmune reactions that can worsen and lead to severe conditions over time.

There is some evidence that consuming fulvic acid can help decrease digestive disorders and other issues, including:

  • SIBO symptoms (small intestine bacterial overgrowth)
  • inflammatory bowel disorders
  • bacterial infections (respiratory, urinary tract, etc.)
  • the flu and common colds

Helps Boost Digestion & Nutrient Absorption

Fulvic Acid (like Shilajit) is high in electrolytes and numerous trace minerals, all of which are essential in the human body for metabolic functions, digestive health, nutrient assimilation and a variety of cellular functions.

Even small doses of fulvic acid have a marked improvement on the ratio of good-bad bacteria living in the gut; can lead to quick and noticable improvements in digestive symptoms including: leaky gut, constipation, bloating, diarrhea, and food sensitivities.

In addition to providing raw materials, Fulvic acid is well researched for it’s potential to boost the absorption of other nutrients, by making cells more permeable and helping shuttle minerals and nutrients into cells more effectively. As well as figting inflammation in the digestive tract, which helps to improve nutrient absorption overall.

Supports Brain Health & Helps Prevent Alzheimers

“Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder involving extracellular plaques (amyloid-β) and intracellular tangles of tau protein”

In a study published in 2011 titled Fulvic acid inhibits aggregation and promotes disassembly of tau fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease, researchers found that Fulvic acid could help prevent tao protein formation by “affecting the length of fibrils and their morphology” as well as through diminishing length of PHF’s. They concluded that fulvic acid could be a potential adjunct treatment for alzheimers disease:

“Fulvic acid, a humic substance, has several nutraceutical properties with potential activity to protect cognitive impairment. In this work we provide evidence to show that the aggregation process of tau protein, forming paired helical filaments (PHFs) in vitro, is inhibited by fulvic acid affecting the length of fibrils and their morphology. In addition, we investigated whether fulvic acid is capable of disassembling preformed PHFs. We show that the fulvic acid is an active compound against preformed fibrils affecting the whole structure by diminishing length of PHFs and probably acting at the hydrophobic level, as we observed by atomic force techniques. Thus, fulvic acid is likely to provide new insights in the development of potential treatments for Alzheimer’s disease using natural products.”

Fulvic acid inhibits aggregation and promotes disassembly of tau fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease
Tau oligomers as potential targets for Alzheimer’s diagnosis and novel drugs

In a review published in 2013 titled Tau oligomers as potential targets for Alzheimer’s diagnosis and novel drugs, researchers came to the same conclusion, that fulvic acid was neuroprotective, and inhibited the formation of tao oligomers associated with Alzheimers disease:

“In this context, fulvic acid (FA), a humic substance, has potential protective activity cognitive impairment. In fact, formation of paired helical filaments in vitro, is inhibited by FA affecting the length of fibrils and their morphology.

Tau oligomers as potential targets for Alzheimer’s diagnosis and novel drugs

Considering how safe Fulvic acid is, it would seem a no brainer for individuals to integrate it as a preventative measure and early adjunct treatment for Alzheimers disease.

Helps Detoxify the Body

Humic acids are capable of binding to and breaking down toxins and metals in the body. This includes toxins we absorb through: food supply, water, prescription medications, household products and air pollution. This is what makes Fulvic acid such a profound impact on digestion and improving energy; it’s powerful detoxifying properties.

Studies have shown that humic acids have ion-selective electrodes that can be used for attracting heavy metals — even for filtering soils and water, because they help bind to things like copper and iron.

Research shows Fulvic acid is even effective at geochemical processing of soils and aquatic environments at much lower concentrations than other types of chemicals.

Lowers Free Radical Damage and Inflammation

Fulvic acid contains antioxidants that counter the effects of free radicals and also help detoxify the body of many toxins that contribute to the problem including the following: chemicals or pesticides used in agriculture, radioactive waste, heavy metals used for geoengineering found in food products or water, etc

It also helps extend the permeability and life of cells by providing electrolytes that have numerous functions within the heart, muscles, brain and digestive tract.

Helps Treat Cancer

Some studies have shown that humic substances like fulvic acid, posses pharmacological properties that can help to defend against some types of cancer, including colorectal cancer.

A study published 2015 titled Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells, found that Fulvic acid can inhibit endothelial adhesion of colorectal cancer (CRC) in response to resistin, making it a potential adjunct treatment for colorectal cancer:

“These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin.”

Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells
Fulvic acid promotes extracellular anti-cancer mediators from RAW 264.7 cells, causing to cancer cell death in vitro

In another study published titled Fulvic acid promotes extracellular anti-cancer mediators from RAW 264.7 cells, causing to cancer cell death in vitro, researchers found that Fulvic Acid stimulated immune-modulating molecules such as Nitric Oxide (NO), enhancing cell death in various human cancer cells:

“In the current study, we first isolated FA from humus and investigated whether FA regulates immune-stimulating functions, such as production of nitric oxide (NO), in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data showed that FA slightly enhances cell viability in a dose-dependent manner and secretion of NO from RAW 264.7 cells. It upregulated the protein and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthesis (iNOS). In addition, FA enhanced the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in RAW 264.7 cells; the NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) effectively attenuated the expression of FA-stimulated iNOS, suggesting that FA stimulates NF-κB to promote iNOS and NO production. Finally, FA-stimulated culture media (FA-CM) from RAW 264.7 cells were collected and MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cells were cultured in this media. The FA-CM augmented MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis; however, an NO inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (NMMA) slightly inhibited the FA-CM-mediated MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by low levels of NO. In the present study, we found that FA induces the generation of NO and iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells by inducing NF-κB activation; however, NO did not significantly stimulate MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cell apoptosis in the current study. In addition, FA-CM enhanced cell death in various human cancer cells such as Hep3B, LNCaP, and HL60. Taken together, FA most likely stimulates immune-modulating molecules such as NO and induces cancer cell apoptosis.

Fulvic acid promotes extracellular anti-cancer mediators from RAW 264.7 cells, causing to cancer cell death in vitro

Improves Energy Levels and Lowers Pain

The electrolyte, nutrient and trace mineral content of Fulvic Acid (FA), along with it’s powerful detoxifying properties and ability to lower inflammation and prevent free radical damage, have lead to many users of the supplement lauding it’s energy enhancing powers.

According to research done by Doctors Across Borders, studies have found that as natural and organic electrolytes, humic acids activate and energize nearly every biological process in the body.

An electrolyte is soluble in water and works by conducting electrical currents, helping cells survive in the face of damage caused by things like emotional stress, uncontrolled infections, unbalanced diet, prolonged loss of sleep and surgical shocks.

This also makes fulvic acid effective for lowering: chronic nerve pain, headaches, joint pain caused by arthritis, or bone and muscle pains associated with aging.

There’s some evidence that fulvic acid’s electrolytes can help reduce swelling, decrease inflammation, soothe and relax muscles, and improve circulation. Conversely, an electrolyte imbalance can cause these symptoms to worsen.

Repairs and Protects the Skin

The antimicrobial properties of Fulvic Acid (FA) help fight harmful bacteria, which helps protect the skin, and treat wounds or irritations caused by things like: eczema, bug bites, scrapes and rashes associated with fungus/microbes.

In a study published 2011 titled Randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema, researchers found that fulvic acid supplementation significantly improved symptoms associated with eczema, even compared to other other eczema treatments:

“CHD-FA was well tolerated, with no difference in reported side effects other than a short-lived burning sensation on application. CHD-FA significantly improved some aspects of eczema. Investigator assessment of global response to treatment with CHD-FA was significantly better than that with emollient therapy alone. The results of this small exploratory study suggest that CHD-FA warrants further investigation in the treatment of eczema.”

Randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema

Fulvic Acid and COVID-19

Studies currently not available.


Fibrin – Blood Clot

Fibrin is involved in and essential for the formation of blood clumps as part of your bodies first reponse to injury and pain. In the above picture the sticky clumps covering the red blood cells almost like a glue mesh are whats called “fibrin”; helping stick the blood cells together into a clot. Fibrin mesh is the base material for clots, scabs, scars, and overall healthy skin.

Fibrin is part of a healthy body, however when it gets out of control it causes many ailments associated with old age including: lingering pain, loss of flexibility or mobility, and chronic inflammation contributing to things like chronic joint and back pain. In fact the vast majority of joint pain has at it’s root inflammation. Like any other miracle supplement, you won’t see Bio-Fibrin being shilled by Big Pharma, because they are making billions on selling expensive pain medications

This is one of the reasons getting tested for food alergies is essential…because consuming foods you are alergic to can cause allot of inflammation leading to poor health. This is also why some foods are more prone to cause infalammation than others.

Many pain medications interrupt the mechanism controlling the enzymes that clean up and dissolve excess fibrin. These enzymes are organized a few days post-repair of the injury, sort of like an after construction “clean up crew”, and are reponsible for restoring muscles, nerves, and blood vessels to their original condition before the damage.

Pain medications essentially fire all the enzyes and tell them “there’s no mess here. go home!” when in fact your house is a complete mess, while also telling Fibrin to continue construction even though ther’s nothing left to build. Over time, the fibrin molecules thicken and stiffen, forming scar tissue masses that can block blood vessels, interfere with muscle function, and lead to chronic inflammation.

  • Fibrin is an insoluble protein that acts as a first responder whenever your body is injured.
  • When the call for help goes out, fibrin molecules rush to the scene.
  • Shaped like long threads, each fibrin molecule interlaces to form a thin mesh around your wound.
  • This mesh is critical for trapping the platelets and red blood cells needed to form blood clots.
  • Without fibrin, even small wounds would just keep bleeding.
  • When everything is in perfect working order, the fibrin rushed to the injured site is returned to your body as you heal.
  • After a few days of repairs, your system sends in a second clean-up crew of enzymes to dissolve the excess fibrin and leave your muscles, nerves, and blood vessels just as they were before you were hurt.
  • Due to a variety of actors including consuming toxins through diet, air, liquids we drink, and a lack of proper nutrition, and exercise…as we age our internal fibrin systems decline (around age 27).
    • Excess fibrin is associated with the aches and pains of getting older.

Please Note: Most of the information in this section on Bio-Fibrin comes from an article written by Jesse Cannone. Full credit to the original author for this info.

More on Proteolytic Enzymes

Your body makes tens of thousands of different enzymes which regulate various biological and metabolic functions. However it’s important to understand the differences between the different enzymes, for example digestive enzymes, which are involved in gut health and digestion vs proteolytic enzymes which break down proteins into amino acids.

Digestive enzymes can be greatly benefical for those with digestive issues who experience regular gas, bloating, abdominal pain, heartburn or other gastrointestinal groubles…they help improve nutrient absorbtion from food and reduce strain on your digestive system, but their benefits are limited to your digestive tract. They don’t survive stomach acid, and so provide little other benefit.

Systemic enzymes are designed ot survive stomach acid, so they can enter your small intestine and be absorbed into your bloodstream – where the real “magic” happens. Once they are able to enter the blood stream, they can circulate throughout the body.

System Proteolytic enzymes aka “proteases” are enzymes which break down proteins into smaller parts and eventually into amino acids. Naturally found in your body these enzymes can also be acquired from certain foods and dietary supplements. They are also designed to survive digestion so they cvan make it to the small intestine where they can help break down proteins like fibrin in your circulatory system, connective tissues and muscles.

Compounds in Bio-Fibrin


Health Properties of Bio-Fibrin (Pharmacological Actions)

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-coagulant

Medical Uses for Bio-Fibrin

Because of the powerful anti-inflammatory properties of proteolytic enzymes, they are powerful weapons against virtually all chronic diseases including:

  • Arthritis
  • Atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries) and heart disease
  • Back pain
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Chronic pain
  • Fibrocystic breast
  • Autoimmune diseases
    • Fibromyalgia – Fbromyalgia have been linked to an excess of fibrin in your muscle tissues. Known as fibrosis, this condition can spread to affect every muscle and organ in your body.
    • Lupus
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • High blood pressure
  • Herniated disc
  • Hyper-coagulation
  • Sciatica
  • Spinal Stenosis
  • Strains and sprains
  • Post-operative scar tissue
  • Traumatic Inflammation
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Chron’s disease
  • Osteoporosis
  • Sinusitis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Endometriosis

Health Risks & Drug Interactions

There are dozens of clincal trials and studies showing the safety and efficacy of supplemental proteolytic enzymes. Oral Enzyme therapy is so safe that it’s used by Germany and Austria by their Olympic athletes before they compete to treat and prevent injury and enhance physical performance.

Check with your doctor, before supplementing with Bio-Fibrin / proteolytic enzymes, if you meet the following conditions:

  • Individuals taking prescription blood thinners (Coumadin, Heparin, Plavix)
  • Anyone who will be having surgery in less than two weeks
  • Individuals with known ulcers of the stomach
  • Pregnant or lactating women
  • Individuals currently taking antibiotics
  • Individuals with an allergic reaction to pineapples or papayas

However i should point out that when you compare the dangers and side effects of many pain medications, proteolytic enzymes by comparison are much, much safer. Just look at the side effects associated with taking NSAIDs like ibuprogen and naproxen. Also while painkillers simply pask symptoms, pyoteolytic enzymes support your body’s own ability to heal itself.

You can check side effects of your medications by typing the names into

Dosage & Supplement Facts

  • Enzyme therapy has been used in Europe for over 50 years
  • In Japan, some proteolytic enzymes are classified as prescription drugs
  • Oral enzyme therapy is used by Germany and Austria by their Olympic athletes before they compete to treat and prevent injury and enhance physical performance
  • Choose a proteolytic enzyme formula that lists the amount of enzymes in “activity units” as proteolytic enzymes are not measured by weight. Look on the label for abbreviations like “HUT”, “FCCPU” and “USP”.

Food Sources of Proteolytic Enzymes

Your body naturally produces proteolytic enzymes in your pancreas, however the production declines with age (drastically post age 27). For example a newbord has 100x more enzymes than an old person, and a 20yr old 2x those of a 70yr old. Hence why it’s important, especially for older individuals, to supplement in order to make up for declining production within the pancreas.

  • Obtaining adequate proteolytic enzymes is difficult through diet alone, especially as you age for the following reasons:
    • a) Most modern foods are lousy nutritional sources due to modern farming practices including pesticide use.
    • b) The best naturally occurring proteolytic enzyme food sources are not part of a typical diet
    • c) You can get proteolytic enzymes from plant sources like pineapple stems, caper leaves, and papaya, but they need to be extracted in a lab

Plant and fungal proteolytic enzymes are generally better tolderated in the gastric environment (survive stomach acid), which means more enzymes make their way into your lower intestines, where they can exert their powerful health benefits. Here are some of the more common plant and fungal based proteolytic enzymes:

  • Bromelain comes from the stems, core and juice of the pineapple plant
  • Papain comes from the leaves, roots and fruit of the papaya plant
  • Ficin is contained in figs
  • Serrazimes® is a ptent and very effective fungal proteas
  • kiwi
  • ginger
  • asparagus
  • yogurt
  • fermented foods like kimchi, kefir and sauerkraut

Historically healers in south and central america used proteolytic enzymes, through their use of fruits such as pineapples and papaya, to treat a variety of ailments. Here are a few more guides by on proteolytic containing, and anti-inflammatory foods:

Health Benefits of Bio-Fibrin

Supplementing with Bio-Fibrin can help reverse fibrin overgrowth and help activate your body’s natural fibrin “clean-up” crew, made of proteolytic enzymes, a group responsible for breaking down protein molecules. They attack fibrin masses and literally eat them away, while having the added benefit of helping cleanse toxins from your blood, fight viruses, and fortify your overall immune system.

  1. Fights Pain and Inflammation
  2. Accelerates Wound Healing
  3. Relieves Muscle Pain
  4. Kills Viruses
  5. Boosts Immune System
  6. Helps Regulate Blood Pressure

Fights Pain and Inflammation

Proteolytic enzymes help deliver nutrients and oxygen-rich blood to help detox your system of metabolic waste that can cause inflammation.

A study titled Acute protease supplementation effects on muscle damage and recovery across consecutive days of cycle racing, on competitive cyclists, showed that fatigue was lower in the bromelain group, while it also helped maintain testosterone:

“Bromelain supplementation reduced subjective feelings of fatigue and was associated with a trend to maintain testosterone concentration.”

Acute protease supplementation effects on muscle damage and recovery across consecutive days of cycle racing
Protease supplementation improves muscle function after eccentric exercise

In another study titled Protease supplementation improves muscle function after eccentric exercise, researchers found that protease supplementation (bromelain and papain), helped maintain muscles strength by regulating leukocyte activity and reducing inflammation:

“Protease supplementation seems to attenuate muscle strength losses after eccentric exercise by regulating leukocyte activity and inflammation.”

Protease supplementation improves muscle function after eccentric exercise

Accellerates Wound Healing

Numerous studies prove that bromelain and papain have wound healing properties, and promote growth of new tissue.

In a russian study published in 2017 titled Targeting microbial biofilms using Ficin, a nonspecific plant protease, researchers showed that ficin, derived from figs, makes antibiotics more effective against certain infections such as staph infections:

Pre-treatment with Ficin (1000 μg/ml) considerably reduced the concentrations of ciprofloxacin and bezalkonium chloride required to suppress the viable Staphylococci by 3 orders of magnitude. We also demonstrated that Ficin is not cytotoxic towards human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) and dog adipose derived stem cells. Overall, Ficin is a potent tool for staphylococcal biofilm treatment and fabrication of novel antimicrobial therapeutics for medical and veterinary applications.

Targeting microbial biofilms using Ficin, a nonspecific plant protease
Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase on swelling, pain and trismus after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars

In another study publsihed 2008 titled Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase on swelling, pain and trismus after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars, researchers showed that proteolytic enzymes, in this case serrapeptase taken post-surgery significantly helped with: swelling, pain and bruising:

“There was a significant reduction in the extent of cheek swelling and pain intensity in the serrapeptase group at the 2nd, 3rd and 7th postoperative days (P<0.05)”

Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase on swelling, pain and trismus after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars

Relieves Muscle Pain

When your muscles get sore after a workout it’s referred to as Delayted Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). Proteolytic enzymes can help to relieve muscle pain.

In one study published 2009 titled BounceBack™ capsules for reduction of DOMS after eccentric exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study, researchers found those given proteolytic enzyme – bromelain and curcumin (also anti-inflammatory), experienced less pain and tenderness post-exercise vs the control (placebo) group. In addition their bloodwork shoed a decrease in C-reactive protein (an indicator of inflammation):

“In this controlled pilot study, intake of BounceBack™ capsules for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in standardized measures of pain and tenderness post-eccentric exercise compared to the placebo group. There were trends towards reductions in plasma indicators of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) and muscle damage (creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin).”

BounceBack™ capsules for reduction of DOMS after eccentric exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study
The effects of protease supplementation on skeletal muscle function and DOMS following downhill running

In a study published 2004 titled The effects of protease supplementation on skeletal muscle function and DOMS following downhill running, researchers showed that proteolytic enzyme supplements taken pre and post-workout improved recovery time and muscle soreness:

“The experimental group demonstrated superior recovery of contractile function and diminished effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness after downhill running when compared with the placebo group. Our results indicate that protease supplementation may attenuate muscle soreness after downhill running. Protease supplementation may also facilitate muscle healing and allow for faster restoration of contractile function after intense exercise.”

The effects of protease supplementation on skeletal muscle function and DOMS following downhill running,

Kills Viruses

Fibrin builds up in the body, and viruses like to hide under the fibrin later that coats the walls of your blood vessels. Essentially viruses use fibrin to form a protective blanket around themselves, which makes it difficult for your immune system’s white blood cells to find and eliminate these viruses.

By taking Bio-Fibrin, the enzymes help dissolve the fibrin that’s forming a protective layer over the viruses, essentially exposing them so that your immune system can access them and wipe those viruses out.

Disolves Protective Capsid Coating of Viruses

In addition to helping dissolve this “fibrin blanket” which the viruses are hiding under…the proteolytic enzymes also eat up the outer “capsid” coating of the virus, which once removed, renders the virus harmless.

In a study published in 2020 titled The effect of proteolytic enzymes and pH on GII.4 norovirus, during both interactions and non-interaction with Histo-Blood Group Antigens, researchers showed that proteolytic enzymes and pH had an effect on GII.4 norovirus:

“The effects of acid pH and proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin) on GII.4 virus-like particles (VLPs) and GII.4 HuNoVs were studied, both during interactions and non-interaction with HBGAs. The results showed that GII.4 VLPs and GII.4 HuNoVs behaved differently following the treatments. GII.4 VLPs were disrupted at a pH of less than 2.0 and in the presence of proteolytic enzymes (1,500 units/mL pepsin, 100 mg/mL trypsin, and 100 mg/mL chymotrypsin). VLPs were also partially damaged by lower concentrations of trypsin and chymotrypsin (0.1 mg/mL). Conversely, the capsids of GII.4 HuNoVs were not compromised by such treatments, since their genomes were not accessible to RNase. HBGAs were found to offer GII.4 VLPs no protection against an acid pH or proteolytic enzymes.”

The effect of proteolytic enzymes and pH on GII.4 norovirus, during both interactions and non-interaction with Histo-Blood Group Antigens,

Boosts Immune System

Proteolytic enzymes enhance the function of your body’s natural killer cells. While also helping to break down pathogenic immune complexes which interfere with normal immune function; linked to kidney disease, nerve inflammation and a variety of rheumatological diseases.

In fact systemic enzymes prevent the formation of these dangerous immune complexes, which helps boost your overall immune response.

Helps Regulate Blood Pressure

Studies headed by the “father” of blood flow research – Dr. Shu Chien of Columbia University – shows high blood viscosity (thick blood) causes hypertension (high blood pressure).

Harvard researchers show how excess fibrin enters your blood stream, making your blood sticky and thick, which gets “lodged ” in your blood vessels causing dangerous clot obstructions.

Multiple studies show that proteolytic enzymes naturally eat and dissolve excess fibrin, clogging up your blood:

In one study published in 2020 titled Stem Bromelain Proteolytic Machinery: Study of the Effects of its Components on Fibrin (ogen) and Blood Coagulation, resarchers showed that a proteolytic enzyme bromelain had an anticoagulant effect.

“Acidic bromelains and ananains showed thrombin-type activity and low fibrinolytic activity, with acidic bromelains being the least effective as anticoagulants and fibrinolytics; while basic bromelains, without thrombin-like activity, were the best anticoagulant and fibrinolytic proteases present in ET”

Stem Bromelain Proteolytic Machinery: Study of the Effects of its Components on Fibrin (ogen) and Blood Coagulation

Although it is important to point out as shown in this study, that “The fibrin network plays a crucial part in the defense against pathogens” or in otherwords certain healthy levels of fibrin do play a vital role in elimination of pathogens:

“These data suggest that fibrin polymerization is crucial for sequestration and elimination of pathogens. Nonetheless, the formation of fibrin matrices does not account for all fibrinogen mediated anti-microbial effects [38]…In addition to its hemostatic function, fibrinogen is an important regulator of inflammatory cell function and innate immunity [34,41].”

Thrombin–Fibrin(ogen) Interactions, Host Defense and Risk of Thrombosis

That being said i’de suggest lowering fibrin through proteolytic enzymes is necessary in certian cases such as post-covid vaccine to prevent blood clot related illness and cardiac issues, but should not be used as a prolonged strategy in healthy young individuals.

Bio-Fibrin and COVID-19

We know that in both COVID-19 natural infection, and with the COVID-19 vaccines, blood clots and related illnesses are a well known side effect which can lead to a variety of cardiac (heart) issues. In particular with the COVID-19 vaccines we know blood clotting and related disorders such as myocarditis are common adverse events. Around the world, especially among athletes, we’ve seen unprecedented levels of cardiac failure and disorders like myocarditis and pericarditis.

In fact contrary to what doctors first believed, recent studies now show much of the damage done by COVID-19 is caused independently by the spike protein, and that much of the damage in COVID-19 is a consequence of what is probably the most deadly part of COVID-19 – the spike protein.

Fibrinolytic enzymes can digest the fibrin that leads to blood clots, strokes and pulmonary embolisms. The dose is typically two, twice a day, but must be taken on an empty stomach, either an hour before or two hours after a meal. Otherwise, the enzymes will digest your food and not the fibrin in the blood clot.


Rather then summarizing this lengthy article, i’ll leave you with this quote from a book by Jacques Attali:

“In the future it will be a question of finding a way to reduce the population. We will start with the old man, because once he is over 60-65 years old, man lives longer than he produces and it costs society dearly. Then the weak and then the useless who do not contribute anything to society because there will be more and more, and especially finally the stupid. Euthanasia directed at these groups; euthanasia must be an essential instrument of our future societies, in all cases. Of course, we will not be able to execute people or organize camps. We will get rid of them by making them believe that it is for their own good. Too large a population, and for the most part unnecessary, is something economically too expensive. Socially, it is also much better for the human machine to stop abruptly rather than gradually deteriorate. We won’t be able to pass intelligence tests on millions and millions of people, you can imagine! We will find something or cause it; a pandemic that targets certain people, a real economic crisis or not, a virus that will affect the old or the elderly, it does not matter, the weak and the fearful will succumb. The stupid will believe it and ask to be treated. We will have taken care of having planned the treatment, a treatment that will be the solution. The selection of idiots will therefore be done by itself: they will go to the slaughterhouse alone. “

A Brief History of the Future: A Brave and Controversial Look at the Twenty-First Century by Jacques Attali

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